Publicaciones

Esta sección incluye una lista de los últimos artículos científicos del IPNA publicados en revistas incluidas en el Science Citation Index (SCI).

En DIGITAL.CSIC, repositorio institucional del CSIC, pueden encontrar el listado completo de artículos científicos desde 1962, así como otras colecciones de interés como congresos, tesis, libros, material divulgativo, etc. del centro. El objetivo de DIGITAL.CSIC es organizar, preservar y difundir en acceso abierto los resultados de nuestra investigación.

En el repositorio institucional del CSIC, pueden encontrar el listado completo de artículos científicos, así como otras colecciones de interés como congresos, tesis, libros, material divulgativo, etc.

Ir a Digital - CSIC

 

Análisis de la Producción Científica del IPNA 2014-2019: análisis bibliométrico realizado a partir de datos recogidos en Scopus y Web of Science.

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Digital CSIC
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The social value of heritage: Balancing the promotion-preservation relationship in the Altamira World Heritage Site, Spain

The social value of heritage: Balancing the promotion-preservation relationship in the Altamira World Heritage Site, Spain

The designation of World Heritage Sites (WHSs) by UNESCO strengthens the international and national image of heritage destinations in the growing market of cultural tourism. Understanding how different stakeholders interpret the value of cultural heritage is one of the most important assets for balancing the promotion and protection of WHSs. This study draws on the case of the Altamira Prehistoric Cave WHS (Spain), whose preservation is under threat and constant debate. It explores factors determining the social value of heritage, namely: existence, aesthetic, economic, and legacy value. In doing so, this paper contributes to emerging debates on heritage management and tourist destinations. Data were collected using two surveys, one focused on visitors, with a total of 1047 valid surveys, and another on the Spanish population as a WHS host community, with a total of 1000 valid surveys. The analysis of these surveys shows how the existence, aesthetic, economic and legacy value dimensions of cultural heritage can build up brands around WHSs. The social-value dimension of cultural heritage therefore affects the market potential of WHSs, whose market potential is closely related to the education levels of a given society. These findings provide valuable information and insights for academics, destination managers and policy-makers in the debate about the preservation and tourism branding of Altamira. This will allow different stakeholders to identify opportunities to develop synergies between tourism promotion and heritage preservation, to both strengthen the brand image of a WHS and preserve its heritage.

Parga-Dans, Eva; Alonso-González, Pablo; Otero Enríquez, Raimundo

Journal of Destination Marketing & Management 18: 100499 (2020)
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Protective effects of culture extracts (CB08035-SCA and CB08035-SYP) from Marinobacter hydrocarbonoclasticus (strain CB08035) against oxidant-induced stress in human colon carcinoma Caco-2 cells

Protective effects of culture extracts (CB08035-SCA and CB08035-SYP) from Marinobacter hydrocarbonoclasticus (strain CB08035) against oxidant-induced stress in human colon carcinoma Caco-2 cells

The present study investigated the effect of culture extracts (CB08035-SCA and CB08035-SYP) from Marinobacter hydrocarbonoclasticus (strain CB08035) on cell viability and the potential protective effects attributed to molecular mechanisms underlying antioxidant response to survive oxidative stress injuries. Caco-2 cells were submitted to oxidative stress by treatment with tert-butyl hydroperoxide (t-BOOH). Both extracts prevented cell damage and enhanced activity of antioxidant defenses (NQO1 and GST activities and GSH levels) reduced by treatment with t-BOOH. Increased ROS and caspase 3/7 activity induced by t-BOOH were dose-dependently prevented when cells were treated with the extracts. CB08035-SCA caused up-regulation of Nrf2, AKT1 and Bcl-2 gene expressions. Moreover, CB08035-SCA and CB08035-SYP treatments reduced significantly Bax, BNIP3, APAF1, ERK1, JNK1, MAPK1, NFκB1, TNFα, IL-6, IL-1β and HO-1 gene expressions of apoptosis, proinflammation and oxidative stress induced by t-BOOH. CB08035-SCA and CB08035-SYP CPE extracts confer a significant protection against oxidative insults to cells. Our results show that culture extracts CB08035-SCA and CB08035-SYP from M. hydrocarbonoclasticus (strain CB08035) appeared to have antioxidant potential, based on their ability to protect antioxidant enzymes and mRNA gene expressions linked to apoptosis/oxidative pathways. These results suggest that culture extracts CB08035-SCA and CB08035-SYP can be a potential ingredient in the pharmaceutical and cosmeceutical industries.

Martínez, María-Aránzazu; Ares, Irma; Martínez, Marta; López-Torres, Bernardo; Rodríguez, José-Luis; Maximiliano, Jorge-Enrique; Martínez-Larrañaga, María-Rosa; Anadón, Arturo; de la Rosa, José-Manuel; Cueto, Mercedes

Food and Chemical Toxicology 145: 111671 (2020)
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Saharan Dust Events

Saharan Dust Events in the Dust Belt -Canary Islandsand the Observed Association with in-Hospital Mortality of Patients with Heart Failure

Recent studies have found increases in the cardiovascular mortality rates during poor air quality events due to outbreaks of desert dust. In Tenerife, we collected (2014–2017) data in 829 patients admitted with a heart failure diagnosis in the Emergency Department of the University Hospital of the Canaries. In this region, concentrations of PM10 and PM2.5 are usually low (~20 and 10 g/m3), but they increase to 360 and 115 g/m3, respectively, during Saharan dust events. By using statistical tools (including multivariable logistic regressions), we compared in-hospital mortality of patients with heart failure and exposure to PM10 and PM2.5 during dust and no-dust events. We found that 86% of in-hospital heart failure mortality cases occurred during Saharan dust episodes that resulted in PM10 > 50 g/m3 (interquartile range: 71–96 g/m3). A multivariate analysis showed that, after adjusting for other covariates, exposure to Saharan dust events associated with PM10 > 50 g/m3 was an independent predictor of heart failure in-hospital mortality (OR = 2.79, 95% CI (1.066–7.332), p = 0.03). In conclusion, this study demonstrates that exposure to high Saharan dust concentrations is independently associated with in-hospital mortality in patients with heart failure.

Dominguez-Rodriguez, Alberto; Baez-Ferrer, Néstor; Rodríguez, Sergio; Avanzas, Pablo; Abreu-Gonzalez, Pedro; Terradellas, Enric; Cuevas, Emilio; Basart, Sara

Journal of Clinical Medicine 9(2): 376 (2020)
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First record of intertidal oribatid mites (Acari, Oribatida) from the Canaries – a new species and its complete ontogeny

First record of intertidal oribatid mites (Acari, Oribatida) from the Canaries – a new species and its complete ontogeny

A new species of intertidal oribatid mites from Tenerife is described and its full ontogenetic development is given in detail. Thalassozetes canariensis sp. nov. can easily be distinguished from its congeners by its characteristic notogastral cuticular pattern showing loosely distributed irregular elevations, and its rectangular median sternal cavity. Based on morphology, Thalassozetes canariensis sp. nov. is most closely related to the Mediterranean T. riparius; both species share a small transversal band-like notogastral light spot and the longitudinal orientation of lyrifissure iad. The juvenile morphology of T. canariensis sp. nov. conforms basically to those of known Thalassozetes juveniles but there are discrepancies in certain aspects that require further research into all known species. This report of T. canariensis sp. nov. from Tenerife is the first record of an intertidal mite for the Canaries, and also for the Eastern Atlantic area. Further records of this species within the area may be expected.

Pfindstl, Tobias; De la Paz, Juan Carlos; Hernández-Teixidor, David

Systematic and Applied Acarology 25(10): 1901-1914 (2020)
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Self-compatibility in peach [Prunus persica (L.) Batsch]: patterns of diversity surrounding the S-locus and analysis of SFB alleles

Self-compatibility in peach [Prunus persica (L.) Batsch]: patterns of diversity surrounding the S-locus and analysis of SFB alleles

Self-incompatibility (SI) to self-compatibility (SC) transition is one of the most frequent and prevalent evolutionary shifts in flowering plants. Prunus L. (Rosaceae) is a genus of over 200 species most of which exhibit a Gametophytic SI system. Peach [Prunus persica (L.) Batsch; 2n = 16] is one of the few exceptions in the genus known to be a fully selfcompatible species. However, the evolutionary process of the complete and irreversible loss of SI in peach is not well understood and, in order to fill that gap, in this study 24 peach accessions were analyzed. Pollen tube growth was controlled in self-pollinated flowers to verify their self-compatible phenotypes. The linkage disequilibrium association between alleles at the S-locus and linked markers at the end of the sixth linkage group was not significant (P > 0.05), except with the closest markers suggesting the absence of a signature of negative frequency dependent selection at the S-locus. Analysis of SFB1 and SFB2 protein sequences allowed identifying the absence of some variable and hypervariable domains and the presence of additional α-helices at the C-termini. Molecular and evolutionary analysis of SFB nucleotide sequences showed a signature of purifying selection in SFB2, while the SFB1 seemed to evolve neutrally. Thus, our results show that the SFB2 allele diversified after P. persica and P. dulcis (almond) divergence, a period which is characterized by an important bottleneck, while SFB1 diversified at a transition time between the bottleneck and population expansion.

Abdallah, Donia; Baraket, Ghada; Pérez Méndez, Verónica: Hannachi, Amel Salhi; Hormaza, José I. 

 

 

Horticulture Research 7, 170: 1-15 (2020)
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Linking seascape with landscape genetics: Oceanic currents favour colonization across the Galápagos Islands by a coastal plant

Linking seascape with landscape genetics: Oceanic currents favour colonization across the Galápagos Islands by a coastal plant

Aim

Coastal plants are terrestrial organisms for which ocean surface currents often act as long‐distance dispersal vectors (thalassochorous species) favouring broad distributions and connecting distant populations. However, few studies have statistically assessed the role of currents in modulating gene flow and species distributions of terrestrial organisms. Here we evaluate the hypothesis that some thalassochorous plants exhibit population connectivity, presumably due to effective seed dispersal driven by sea currents.

Location

Galápagos Islands (Ecuador).

Taxon

Salt bush (Cryptocarpus pyriformis Kunth), a Galápagos native and locally widespread coastal angiosperm.

Methods

Using 1806 SNPs obtained by ddRADseq, we evaluated the genetic structure and differentiation of the Galápagos salt bush. To assess the role of sea currents in modulating inter‐population gene flow, four explicit hypotheses were tested using reciprocal causal modelling and spatial eigenvector analysis: (a) isolation by sea resistance, considering that only sea dispersal is possible; (b) isolation by sea and inland resistance, considering that inland dispersal is also possible; (c) isolation by barrier, considering the sea as an obstacle to seed dispersal; and (d) isolation by geographical distance.

Results

Low differentiation and little genetic structure were detected among populations of C. pyriformis. Pairwise genetic distances between populations from different islands were significantly correlated with cost distances calculated from sea‐current direction and speed. Nonetheless, inland dispersal also accounted for some gene flow within each island.

Main conclusion

Extensive and frequent seed dispersal by sea has apparently favoured strong inter‐island genetic connectivity within Galápagos. A combination of methods developed for terrestrial and marine domains (landscape and seascape genetics) aids in understanding how landscape features modulate gene flow of coastal plant species, as these terrestrial organisms are highly dependent on the sea for seed dispersal.

Arjona, Yurena; Fernández-López, Javier; Navascués, Miguel; Álvarez, Nadir; Nogales, Manuel; Vargas, Pablo

 

Journal of Biogeography (2020)

Impact of Saharan dust exposure on airway inflammation in patients with ischemic heart disease

Epidemiological studies found that increases in the concentrations of airborne particulate matter (PM) smaller than 10 microns diameter (PM10) in the ambient air due to desert dust outbreaks contribute to global burden of diseases, primarily as a result of increased risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. No studies have investigated the possible association between desert dust inhalation and airway inflammation in patients with ischemic heart disease (IHD). Induced sputum was collected in 38 patients and analysed to determine markers of airway inflammation (Transforming Growth Factor-β1 [TGF-β1] and hydroxyproline) concentrations. For the purpose of the investigation, PM10 and reactive gases concentrations measured in the European Air Quality Network implemented in the Canary Islands were also used. We identified Saharan desert dust using meteorology and dust models. Patients affected by smoking, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), asthma, pulmonary abnormalities, acute bronchial or pulmonary disease were excluded. The median of age of patients was 64.71 years (56.35–71.54) and 14 (38.84%) of them were women. TGF-β1 and hydroxyproline in sputum were highly associated to PM10 inhalation from the Saharan desert. According to a regression model, an increase of 1 µg/m3 of PM10 concentrations due to desert dust, results in an increase of 3.84 pg/gwt of TGF-β1 (R2 adjusted= 89.69%) and of 0.80 μg/gwt of hydroxyproline (R2 adjusted= 85.28%) in the sputum of patients. The results of this study indicate that the exposure to high PM10 concentrations due to Saharan dust events are associated with intense inflammatory reaction in the airway mucosae of IHD-patients.

Domínguez-Rodríguez, Alberto; Rodríguez, Sergio; Báez-Ferrer, Néstor; Abreu-González, Pedro; Abreu-González, Juan; Avanzas, Pablo; Carnero, Manuel; Morís, César; López-Darias, Jessica; Hernández-Vaquero, Daniel

Translational Research - the Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine: 1-14 (2020)
DOIDigital.CSIC

FRET mechanism between a fluorescent breast-cancer drug and photodynamic therapy sensitizers

Tamoxifen is one of the most frequently used drugs for the treatment of estrogen receptor positive breast cancer, which is the most prevalent form of hormone dependent breast cancer. A few years ago, we developed a fluorescent derivative of tamoxifen formed by the covalent binding of tamoxifen to a common dye biomarker. The new compound, known as FLTX1, showed the pharmacological activity of the tamoxifen moiety and efficient fluorescence properties, which could be used synergistically to improve the effect of the drug. In this paper, we demonstrate that irradiation at the absorption band of FLTX1 can result in fluorescence resonance energy transfer to photosensitizers such as Rose Bengal and Merocyanine 540, activating the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Indeed, the generation of ROS was demonstrated using a colorimetric assay. Since FLTX1 mostly binds estrogen-receptor overexpressing cancer cells, the results obtained are very promising and suggest a new therapeutic strategy combining chemo- and photodynamic therapies.

Lahoz, Fernando; Scholz, Laura E.; Boto, Alicia; Díaz, Mario

Spectrochimica Acta - A - Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy 239: 118498 (2020)
DOIDigital.CSIC

Quantum Mechanical–NMR-Aided Configuration and Conformation of Two Unreported Macrocycles Isolated from the Soft Coral Lobophytum sp.: Energy Calculations versus Coupling Constants

Two new macrocyclic cembranoids were isolated from the South China Sea soft coral Lobophytum sp. Quantum mechanical–nuclear magnetic resonance (QM–NMR) methods were decisive in their structural elucidation. Better performance in arriving at definitive structures was obtained by QM–NMR methods upon incorporation of 3JHH values. The validity of this approach also supported an alternative conformational proposal versus that obtained by X-ray crystallography.

Li, Song-Wei; Cuadrado, Cristina; Yao, Li-Gong; Hernández Daranas, Antonio; Guo, Yue-Wei

Organic Letters (2020)
DOIDigital.CSIC

Bayesian Inversion of Wrapped Satellite Interferometric Phase to Estimate Fault and Volcano Surface Ground Deformation Models

Bayesian inference and an improved downsampling method is used to determine earthquake and volcano source parameters using a popular geodetic observation method, satellite radar interferometry. The main novelty of the proposed approach is that the interferometric wrapped phase can be directly inverted, circumventing the ill‐posed phase unwrapping processing step. Phase unwrapping errors severely affect the estimation of earthquake and volcano source parameters using interferometric observations. Therefore, it is desirable to avoid phase unwrapping completely. To overcome the need for phase unwrapping, we propose a downsampling algorithm and a method to estimate the covariance function of the wrapped phase and establish an appropriate misfit function between the observed and simulated wrapped phase. Uncertainties in source parameters are assessed with a Bayesian approach, and finally, the robustness of the inversion methodology is tested in multiple simulations including variable decorrelation and atmospheric noise simulations. The method is shown to be robust in challenging noise scenarios. It features an improvement in performance with the Bayesian approach, compared to similar previous methods, avoiding any influence of seed starting models and escaping local minima. The impact of a small percentage of incorrectly unwrapped phase observations in current state‐of‐the‐art methods is shown to strongly affect the estimation process. We conclude that in the cases where phase unwrapping is difficult or even impossible, the proposed inversion methodology with wrapped phase will provide an alternative approach to assess earthquake and volcano source model parameters.

Jiang, Yu; González, Pablo J.

JGR-Solid Earth 125 (5): e2019JB018313 (2020)
DOIDigital.CSIC

Integrated constraints on explosive eruption intensification at Santiaguito dome complex, Guatemala

Protracted volcanic eruptions may exhibit unanticipated intensifications in explosive behaviour and attendant hazards. Santiaguito dome complex, Guatemala, has been characterised by century-long effusion interspersed with frequent, small-to-moderate (<2 km high plumes) gas-and-ash explosions. During 2015–2016, explosions intensified generating hazardous ash-rich plumes (up to 7 km high) and pyroclastic flows. Here, we integrate petrological, geochemical and geophysical evidence to evaluate the causes of explosion intensification. Seismic and infrasound signals reveal progressively longer repose intervals between explosions and deeper fragmentation levels as the seismic energy of these events increased by up to four orders of magnitude. Evidence from geothermobarometry, bulk geochemistry and groundmass microlite textures reveal that the onset of large explosions was concordant with a relatively fast ascent of a deeper-sourced (∼17–24 km), higher temperature (∼960–1020 °C) and relatively volatile-rich magma compared to the previous erupted lavas, which stalled at ∼2 km depth and mingled with the left-over mush that resided beneath the pre-2015 lava dome. We interpret that purging driven by the injection of this deep-sourced magma disrupted the long-term activity, driving a transition from low energy shallow shear-driven fragmentation, to high energy deeper overpressure-driven fragmentation that excavated significant portions of the conduit and intensified local volcanic hazards. Our findings demonstrate the value of multi-parametric approaches for understanding volcanic processes and the triggers for enigmatic shifts in eruption style, with the detection of vicissitudes in both monitoring signals and petrological signatures of the eruptive products proving paramount.

Wallace, Paul A.; Lamb, Oliver D.; De Angelis, Silvio; Kendrick, Jackie E.; Hornby, Adrian J.; Díaz-Moreno, Alejandro; González, Pablo J.; von Aulock, Felix W.; Lamur, Anthony; Utley, James E.P.; Rietbrock, Andreas; Chigna, Gustavo; Lavallée, Yan

Earth and Planetary Science Letters 536: 116139 (2020)
DOIDigital.CSIC

The Unethical Enterprise of the Past: Lessons from the Collapse of Archaeological Heritage Management in Spain

This paper explores the underlying factors behind the collapse of commercial archaeology in Spain, with implications for other international contexts. It contributes to the current global debate about heritage ethics, adding nuance and conceptual depth to critical management studies and cultural heritage management in their approach to business ethics. Similar to other European contexts, Spanish archaeological management thrived during the 1990s and 2000s as a business model based on policies directed at safeguarding cultural heritage. The model had controversial ethical implications at academic, policy and business levels. However, the global financial crisis of 2008 had a huge impact on this sector, and more than 70% of the Spanish archaeological companies closed by 2017. Drawing on the concepts of abstract narratives, functional stupidity and corporatist neoliberalism, this paper illustrates the need to examine ethical issues from a pragmatic standpoint, beyond epistemological and moralistic critiques of profit-oriented businesses in the cultural realm. In doing so, it connects the fields of cultural heritage and management studies, opening up hitherto unexplored strands of research and debate.

Parga Dans, Eva; Alonso González, Pablo

Journal of Business Ethics (2020)
DOIDigital.CSIC

Natural wine: do consumers know what it is, and how natural it really is?

Natural wine is a small but rapidly growing sector within the wine industry. Expertise in the field has been advanced by wine experts and professionals, while publications to aid in further understanding the topic lag behind. This manuscript highlights the need to develop more rigorous methodologies to better understand the market segment of natural wine, its consumers, and their composition and behaviour. Moreover, it calls for a deeper theoretical engagement with the notion of natural wine, which positions it among other sustainable and ecological certifications, including organic, biodynamic or sulphite-free. This would allow researchers to advance from the current state of knowledge, which continues to limit our ‘practical’ capacity for advice to policy makers but not to winemakers and marketers. These theoretical and methodological developments would allow scholars to catch up with debates being held by different social actors in the natural wine scene, including winemakers’ and consumer associations, bloggers, writers and professional marketers.

Alonso González, Pablo; Parga-Dans, Eva

Journal of Cleaner Production 251: 119635 (2020)
DOIDigital.CSIC

Phylogeographic and phenotypic outcomes of brown anole colonization across the Caribbean provide insight into the beginning stages of an adaptive radiation

Some of the most important insights into the ecological and evolutionary processes of diversification and speciation have come from studies of island adaptive radiations, yet relatively little research has examined how these radiations initiate. We suggest that Anolis sagrei is a candidate for understanding the origins of the Caribbean Anolis adaptive radiation and how a colonizing anole species begins to undergo allopatric diversification, phenotypic divergence and, potentially, speciation. We undertook a genomic and morphological analysis of representative populations across the entire native range of A. sagrei, finding that the species originated in the early Pliocene, with the deepest divergence occurring between western and eastern Cuba. Lineages from these two regions subsequently colonized the northern Caribbean. We find that at the broadest scale, populations colonizing areas with fewer closely related competitors tend to evolve larger body size and more lamellae on their toepads. This trend follows expectations for post‐colonization divergence from progenitors and convergence in allopatry, whereby populations freed from competition with close relatives evolve towards common morphological and ecological optima. Taken together, our results show a complex history of ancient and recent Cuban diaspora with populations on competitor‐poor islands evolving away from their ancestral Cuban populations regardless of their phylogenetic relationships, thus providing insight into the original diversification of colonist anoles at the beginning of the radiation. Our research also supplies an evolutionary framework for the many studies of this increasingly important species in ecological and evolutionary research.

Graham Reynolds, Robert; Kolbe, Jason J.; Glor, Richard E.; López-Darias, Marta; Gómez Pourroy, Verónica C.; Harrison, Alexis S.; de Queiroz, Kevin; J. Revell, Liam; B. Losos, Jonathan

Journal of Evolutionary Biology 33(4): 468-494 (2020)
DOIDigital.CSIC

Six new non-native ants (Formicidae) in the Canary Islands and their possible impacts

Biological invasions are one of the main causes of biodiversity loss, especially on oceanic islands. Ants are among the most damaging pests in the world. After systematic sampling of more than 1,000 localities in the Canary Islands, six new exotic ant species are reported for the first time: Pheidole bilimeki (Myrmicinae), Pheidole navigans (Myrmicinae), Strumigenys membranifera (Myrmicinae), Brachymyrmex cordemoyi (Formicinae), Tapinoma darioi (Dolichoderinae) and Technomyrmex pallipes (Dolichoderinae). Moreover, another two recently reported species have been genetically confirmed. Morphological and genetic data were analysed to confirm the identity of the new records. For each species, information regarding identification, distribution, global invasive records and possible impacts is given. The arrival of these species may endanger local biodiversity.

Hernández-Teixidor, David; Pérez-Delgado, Antonio José; Suárez, Daniel; Reyes-López, Joaquin

Journal of Applied Entomology 1-8 (2020)
DOIDigital.CSIC

Effect of diurnal vs. nocturnal pollinators and flower position on the reproductive success of Echium simplex

Nocturnal pollination plays an important role in sexual plant reproduction but has been overlooked, partially because of intrinsic difficulties in field experimentation. Even less attention has received the effect of within-inflorescence spatial position (distal or proximal) on nocturnal pollinators of columnar plants, despite numerous studies examining the relationship between such position and reproductive success. Woody endemic Echium simplex possesses large erect inflorescences bearing thousands of flowers which are visited by a wide array of diurnal and nocturnal animals. In this study, we identified nocturnal visitors and compared their pollination effectiveness with that of diurnal pollinators in different inflorescence sections by means of selective exclosures in NE Tenerife (Canary Islands). Nocturnal visitors included at least ten morphospecies of moths (such as Paradrina rebeli and Eupithecia sp.), two coleopteran species (mainly Alloxantha sp.), neuropterans (Chrysoperla carnea), dictyopterans (Phyllodromica brullei), dermapterans (Guanchia sp.) and julidans (Ommatoiulus moreletii). In general, plants excluded from pollinators set less fruits than open-pollination (control) plants which set fruits homogeneously across sections. Diurnally pollinated plants set more fruit in their upper parts whereas nocturnally pollinated plants set fruit in both upper and bottom sections. We conclude that although the frequency and diversity of diurnal pollinators is far higher than that of nocturnal pollinators, both exhibit different foraging behaviour that generates complementary effects on the reproductive success of E. simplex.

Jaca, Julia; Nogales, Manuel; Traveset, Anna

Arthropod Plant Interactions 14: 409–419 (2020)
DOIDigital.CSIC