Esta sección incluye una lista de los últimos artículos científicos del IPNA publicados en revistas incluidas en el Science Citation Index (SCI).
En DIGITAL.CSIC, repositorio institucional del CSIC, pueden encontrar el listado completo de artículos científicos desde 1962, así como otras colecciones de interés como congresos, tesis, libros, material divulgativo, etc. del centro. El objetivo de DIGITAL.CSIC es organizar, preservar y difundir en acceso abierto los resultados de nuestra investigación.
En el repositorio institucional del CSIC, pueden encontrar el listado completo de artículos científicos, así como otras colecciones de interés como congresos, tesis, libros, material divulgativo, etc.
Análisis de la Producción Científica del IPNA 2014-2019: análisis bibliométrico realizado a partir de datos recogidos en Scopus y Web of Science.
Could climate change benefit invasive snakes? Modelling the potential distribution of the California Kingsnake in the Canary Islands
The interaction between climate change and biological invasions is a global conservation challenge with major consequences for invasive species management. However, our understanding of this interaction has substantial knowledge gaps; this is particularly relevant for invasive snakes on islands because they can be a serious threat to island ecosystems. Here we evaluated the potential influence of climate change on the distribution of invasive snakes on islands, using the invasion of the California kingsnake (Lampropeltis californiae) in Gran Canaria. We analysed the potential distribution of L. californiae under current and future climatic conditions in the Canary Islands, with the underlying hypothesis that the archipelago might be suitable for the species under these climate scenarios. Our results indicate that the Canary Islands are currently highly suitable for the invasive snake, with increased suitability under the climate change scenarios tested here. This study supports the idea that invasive reptiles represent a substantial threat to near-tropical regions, and builds on previous studies suggesting that the menace of invasive reptiles may persist or even be exacerbated by climate change. We suggest future research should continue to fill the knowledge gap regarding invasive reptiles, in particular snakes, to clarify their potential future impacts on global biodiversity.
Piquet, Julien C. ; Warren, Dan L.; Saavedra Bolaños, Jorge Fernando; Sánchez Rivero, José Miguel; Gallo-Barneto, Ramón; Cabrera-Pérez, Miguel Ángel; Fisher, Robert N.; Fisher, Sam R.; Rochester, Carlton J.; Hinds, Brian; Nogales, Manuel ; López-Darias, Marta
K-Ar geochronology and trace-element geochemistry of 2M1 illite from upper Paleozoic shale of SW Laurentia – Insights into sediment origin and drainage pathways in the Anadarko Basin, USA
The Anadarko Basin of Oklahoma represents a major Paleozoic depocenter that existed along the rifted margins of southwestern Laurentia. In its infancy it accumulated a thick series of Cambrian through Mississippian detritus while further subsidence caused by inversion of the Cambrian Southern Oklahoma Aulacogen resulted in voluminous Pennsylvanian to Permian sediment. This contribution reports new data on K-Ar ages and trace-element geochemistry of detrital illite from middle and upper Pennsylvanian shale used to reconstruct sediment origins at the peak period of subsidence of the Anadarko Basin. X-ray diffraction was used to unveil mineral compositions and abundances of illite polytypes in two size fractions of separated illite (˂1 and 2-1 μm). K-Ar isotopic analyses were completed for both fine fractions, while the laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry was done for the latter. All illite separates consisted of mixtures of authigenic (1Md) and detrital (2M1) illite. The Illite Age Analyses showed that the detrital age of Desmoinesian (Moscovian) shale is the late Ediacaran (584 Ma), while the age of Missourian (Kasimovian) shale is the middle Cambrian (512.5 Ma). Trace-element abundances of all analyzed illite, irrespectively of stratigraphic age, are consistent with those of mica from metamorphic rocks. Based on illite detrital age and geochemistry it was inferred that Desmoinesian (Moscovian) shale represents a mixture of Neoproterozoic and Cambrian detritus sourced locally, whereas Missourian (Kasimovian) shale records a provenance shift toward more distal easterly sources from the Ouachita-(Marathon) foreland. This study has proposed a sediment source transition between the middle and upper Pennsylvanian that likely reflected major changes in the basin paleogeography and progressive development of the east-west (transcontinental) fluvial systems.
Šegvić, Branimir; Zanoni, Giovanni; Bozkaya, Ömer; Sweet, Dustin; Barnes, Melanie; Boulesteix, Thomas ; Solé, Jesús
Changes in the structure of seed dispersal networks when including interaction outcomes from both plant and animal perspectives
Interaction frequency is the most common currency in quantitative ecological networks, although interaction quality can also affect benefits provided by mutualisms. Here, we evaluate if interaction quality can modify network topology, species' role and whether such changes affect community vulnerability to species loss. We use a well-examined study system (bird–lizard and fleshy-fruited plants in the ‘thermophilous' woodland of the Canary Islands) to compare network and species-level metrics from a network based on fruit consumption rates (interaction frequency, IF), against networks reflecting functional outcomes: a seed dispersal effectiveness network (SDE) quantifying recruitment, and a fruit resource provisioning network (FRP), accounting for the nutrient supply of fruits. Nestedness decreased in the FRP and the SDE networks, due to the lack of association between fruit consumption rates and 1) nutrient content and; 2) recruitment at the seed deposition sites, respectively. The FRP network showed lower niche overlap due to resource use complementarity among frugivores. Interaction evenness was lower in the SDE network, in response to a higher dominance of lizards in the recruitment of heliophilous species. Such changes, however, did not result in enhanced vulnerability against extinctions. At the plant species level, strength changed in the FRP network in frequently consumed or highly nutritious species. The number of effective partners decreased for species whose seeds were deposited in unsuitable places for recruitment. In frugivores, strength was consistent across networks (SDE vs IF), showing that consumption rates outweighed differences in dispersal quality. In the case of lizards, the increased importance of nutrient-rich species resulted in a higher number of effective partners.
Our work shows that although frequency strongly impacts interaction effects, accounting for quality improves our inferences about interaction assembly and species role. Thus, future studies including interaction outcomes from both partners' perspectives will provide valuable insights about the net effects of mutualistic interactions.
González-Castro, Aaron; Morán-López, Teresa; Nogales, Manuel; Traveset, Anna
The Chemistry of Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) Revisited: Outlining Their Role in Biological Macromolecules (DNA, Lipids and Proteins) and Induced Pathologies
Living species are continuously subjected to all extrinsic forms of reactive oxidants and others that are produced endogenously. There is extensive literature on the generation and effects of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in biological processes, both in terms of alteration and their role in cellular signaling and regulatory pathways. Cells produce ROS as a controlled physiological process, but increasing ROS becomes pathological and leads to oxidative stress and disease. The induction of oxidative stress is an imbalance between the production of radical species and the antioxidant defense systems, which can cause damage to cellular biomolecules, including lipids, proteins and DNA. Cellular and biochemical experiments have been complemented in various ways to explain the biological chemistry of ROS oxidants. However, it is often unclear how this translates into chemical reactions involving redox changes. This review addresses this question and includes a robust mechanistic explanation of the chemical reactions of ROS and oxidative stress.
Andrés Juan, Celia; Pérez de Lastra, José Manuel; Plou Gasca, Francisco José; Pérez-Lebeña, Euardo
Biodiversity monitoring using environmental DNA
Monitoring biodiversity is essential to protect, preserve and restore ecosystems, particularly in the context of current challenges such as climate change, habitat destruction and globalization (Baird & Hajibabaei, 2012). Biomonitoring is needed for developing biotic indices for assessing ecological status, measuring impacts of anthropogenic activities in natural ecosystems, evaluating biodiversity loss, surveying nonindigenous species, conservation, and identifying cryptic species (Balvanera et al., 2006; Fišer et al., 2018). Thus, spatially and temporally structured biomonitoring activities provide a powerful tool for the implementation of regional, national and international regulations, directives and policies for nature conservation. However substantial impediments exist including access to remote locations, limited specialist taxonomic knowledge, cost, slow pace of human-driven data analyses, and typically low sensitivity for detection of rare and elusive species (Zinger et al., 2020). These drawbacks are often translated into expensive monitoring activities with limited spatial, temporal and taxonomic coverage. In this context, new approaches for biomonitoring are being explored, among which advanced DNA-based technologies are emerging (Kissling et al., 2018). The field of biodiversity monitoring through the analysis of the pool of DNA isolated from environmental samples, referred to as environmental DNA or eDNA (Pawlowski et al., 2020; Taberlet et al., 2012), is rapidly growing. This growth is being driven through improved approaches for sampling, data generation and analyses, and with recent advances on how eDNA should be interpreted for biodiversity assessments (Bohmann et al., 2014). The success of eDNA-based biomonitoring is reflected in exponential growth of publications within this area and increasing submissions to Molecular Ecology Resources in particular (Figure 1). Molecular Ecology Resources aims to publish high quality eDNA studies that serve as broad resources, including innovative methodologies for DNA sampling, enhanced laboratory protocols for data generation, or new computer programs and statistical advances for data analyses. Thus, the aim of this editorial is to contribute to producing good quality DNA data-derived essential biodiversity variables (EBVs) (Kissling et al., 2018) by providing guidance to the community submitting articles on the subject. For that purpose, we have summarized best practices established in published literature related to the different phases involved in the process, namely sampling, laboratory work, bioinformatic analyses and data interpretation (Figure 2).
Rodríguez-Ezpeleta, Naiara; Zinger, Lucie; Kinziger, Andrew; Bik, Holly M.; Bonin, Aurélie; Coissac, Eric; Emerson, Brent C. ; Martins Lopes, Carla; Pelletier, Tara A.; Taberlet, Pierre; Narum, Shawn
FLTX2: A Novel Tamoxifen Derivative Endowed with Antiestrogenic, Fluorescent, and Photosensitizer Properties
Tamoxifen is the most widely used selective modulator of estrogen receptors (SERM) and the first strategy as coadjuvant therapy for the treatment of estrogen-receptor (ER) positive breast cancer worldwide. In spite of such success, tamoxifen is not devoid of undesirable effects, the most life-threatening reported so far affecting uterine tissues. Indeed, tamoxifen treatment is discouraged in women under risk of uterine cancers. Recent molecular design efforts have endeavoured the development of tamoxifen derivatives with antiestrogen properties but lacking agonistic uterine tropism. One of this is FLTX2, formed by the covalent binding of tamoxifen as ER binding core, 7-nitrobenzofurazan (NBD) as the florescent dye, and Rose Bengal (RB) as source for reactive oxygen species. Our analyses demonstrate (1) FLTX2 is endowed with similar antiestrogen potency as tamoxifen and its predecessor FLTX1, (2) shows a strong absorption in the blue spectral range, associated to the NBD moiety, which efficiently transfers the excitation energy to RB through intramolecular FRET mechanism, (3) generates superoxide anions in a concentration- and irradiation time-dependent process, and (4) Induces concentration- and time-dependent MCF7 apoptotic cell death. These properties make FLTX2 a very promising candidate to lead a novel generation of SERMs with the endogenous capacity to promote breast tumour cell death in situ by photosensitization.
Díaz, Mario; Lobo, Fernando; Hernández, Dácil; Amesty, Ángel; Valdés-Baizabal, Catalina; Canerina-Amaro, Ana; Mesa-Herrera, Fátima; Soler, Kevin; Boto, Alicia; Marín, Raquel; Estévez-Braun, Ana; Lahoz, Fernando
Three new subterranean species of Baezia (Curculionidae, Molytinae) for the Canary Islands
The genus Baezia Alonso-Zarazaga & García, 1999 is endemic to the Canary Islands, where four species were known to date. Based on morphological evidence, three new species of Baezia are described in this study: Baezia aranfaybo García & López, sp. nov. from El Hierro island, and Baezia madai García & Oromí sp. nov. and Baezia tizziri García & Andújar, sp. nov. from La Palma island. Notes on their biology, habitat, and distribution are presented. The number of taxa in this endemic Canarian genus increases to seven eyeless species. One species has been reported from the soil (endogean environment), with the other six associated with caves and the mesovoid shallow substratum (hypogean or subterranean environment). Frequent association with the presence of roots suggests that species of Baezia may inhabit the continuum represented by the endogean and hypogean environments. Identification key to the seven species are provided.
García, Rafael; Andújar, Carmelo; Oromí, Pedro; Emerson, Brent C.; López, Heriberto
Trophic ecology of an introduced top predator (Felis catus) on a small African oceanic islet (Santa Luzia, Cabo Verde Islands)
Studies on feral cat diet offer important ecological information and are the first step towards determining their impact upon endangered species. However, in comparing seasonal changes in diet with seasonal prey availability, the scarce amount of research into oceanic islands worldwide must be considered when deciding if a specific population is actually affected by cat predation. Cat diet was analysed on Santa Luzia (Cabo Verde Islands) since this invasive predator is considered one of the main threats to native endangered species that require conservation measures. These previous studies were carried out in different seasons, providing contrasting results, skinks being more preyed upon in the rainy season and mice in the driest periods. To check these different results, we focussed on how cat diet varied seasonally in response to changes in prey abundance. Saurians were the most important prey group, followed by mice, invertebrates and birds. No seasonal differences were, however, observed in the different prey groups consumed, saurians being the main prey in both seasons. All cases reflected their respective abundances. Results corroborate the generalist and opportunistic trophic ecology of feral cats, providing important information to assess their impact on prey populations and design future eradication programmes.
Medina, Félix M.; Melo, Tommy; Oliveira, Paulo; Nogales, Manuel; Geraldes, Pedro
Demographic consequences of dispersal‐related trait shift in two recently diverged taxa of montane grasshoppers
Although the pervasiveness of intraspecific wing‐size polymorphism and transitions to flightlessness have long captivated biologists, the demographic outcomes of shifts in dispersal ability are not yet well understood and have been seldom studied at early stages of diversification. Here, we use genomic data to infer the consequences of dispersal‐related trait variation in the taxonomically controversial short‐winged (Chorthippus corsicus corsicus) and long‐winged (Chorthippus corsicus pascuorum) Corsican grasshoppers. Our analyses revealed lack of contemporary hybridization between sympatric long‐ and short‐winged forms and phylogenomic reconstructions supported their taxonomic distinctiveness, rejecting the hypothesis of intraspecific wing polymorphism. Statistical evaluation of alternative models of speciation strongly supported a scenario of Pleistocene divergence (<1.5 Ma) with ancestral gene flow. According to neutral expectations from differences in dispersal capacity, historical effective migration rates from the long‐ to the short‐winged taxon were threefold higher than in the opposite direction. Although populations of the two taxa present a marked genetic structure and have experienced parallel demographic histories, our coalescent‐based analyses suggest that reduced dispersal has fueled diversification in the short‐winged C. c. corsicus. Collectively, our study illustrates how dispersal reduction can speed up geographical diversification and increase the opportunity for allopatric speciation in topographically complex landscapes.
Ortego, Joaquín; Gutiérrez-Rodríguez, Jorge; Noguerales, Víctor
Sharing and Reporting Benefits from Biodiversity Research
The most remarkable feature of our planet is the diversity of its life forms, ranging from viruses and nanobacteria to blue whales and giant sequoias to satanic leaf‐tailed geckos and leafy seadragons (look them up!). Life is found in essentially all environments on earth, and the number of species living on our planet is many times greater than we could have imagined a century ago. A well‐regarded estimate pegs the number of eukaryotic species on earth at 8.7 million (±1.3 million), of which fewer than 15% are currently described (Mora et al., 2011). The diversity of prokaryotes is less clear (and highly controversial), but an analysis of 1.6 billion 16S ribosomal RNA sequences estimated that 0.8–1.6 million prokaryotic operational taxonomic units exist globally (Louca et al., 2019). While we do not know how many species are currently extant, or have existed in the past, we do know that this biodiversity is valuable, providing food, fibre and medicine, furnishing ecosystem services such as water and air purification, nutrient cycling, pollination and carbon uptake, and contributing to technological innovations ranging from biotechnology to robotics to material science. Moreover, biodiversity underlies the cultural identity of human populations and is important to human health and well‐being. Geographically, species richness increases from the Polar Regions to the tropics in terrestrial and surface marine ecosystems. Thus, some countries, especially those in tropical and subtropical regions, are endowed with much greater biodiversity than others. Unfortunately, benefits arising from the access and utilization of this biodiversity have been unequally shared, with (paradoxically) biodiversity‐poor countries often accruing the lion's share of economic gains. There can be imbalances within countries as well, wherein some segments of the population obtain greater economic benefits from biodiversity and associated traditional knowledge than indigenous peoples. The “Nagoya Protocol on Access to Genetic Resources and the Fair and Equitable Sharing of Benefits Arising from their Utilization,” which came into force in 2014, is an international agreement designed to ensure that the benefits arising from biodiversity are shared equitably (https://www.cbd.int/abs/). However, few scientific journals require compliance with the Nagoya Protocol or the reporting of benefits from biodiversity research. In this editorial, we (the editors of Molecular Ecology and Molecular Ecology Resources) express support for the Nagoya Protocol and the principle of benefit sharing. We believe that scientific journals publishing research on biodiversity can play an important role in implementing the Nagoya Protocol and in reporting on benefits generated from such research. Below, we provide background on the Nagoya Protocol, discuss the kinds of benefits that may arise from biodiversity research, describe the rationale for reporting on these benefits and introduce changes to the journals’ Data Accessibility Statements to incorporate the requirements and goals of the Nagoya Protocol.
Marden, Emily; Abbott, Richard J.; Austerlitz, Frédéric; Ortiz Barrientos, Daniel; Baucom, Regina S.; Bongaerts, Pim; Bonin, Aurélie; Bonneaud, Camille; Browne, Luke; Buerkle, C. Alex; Caicedo, Ana L.; Coltman, David W.; Cruzan, Mitchell B.; Davison, Angus; DeWoody, J. Andrew; Dumbrell, Alex J.; Emerson, Brent C.; Fountain-Jones, Nicholas M.; Gillespie, Rosemary; Giraud, Tatiana; Hansen, Michael M.; Hodgins, Kathryn A.; Heuertz, Myriam; Hirase, Shotaro; Hooper, Rebecca; Hohenlohe, Paul; Kane, Nolan C.; Kelley, Joanna L.; Kinziger, Andrew P.; McKenzie, Valerie J.; Moreau, Corrie S.; Nazareno, Alison G.; Pelletier, Tara A.; Pemberton, Josephine M.; Qu, Yanhua; Renaut, Sébastien; Riginos, Cynthia; Rodríguez-Ezpeleta, Naiara; Rogers, Sean M.; Russell, Jacob A.; Schoville, Sean D.; Shi, Suhua; Smith, Megan; Sork, Victoria L.; Stone, Graham N.; Taberlet, Pierre; Videvall, Elin; Waits, Lisette; Warschefsky, Emily; Wayne, Robert K.; Whibley, Annabel; Willoughby, Janna; Yoder, Jeremy B.; Zinger, Lucie; Sibbett, Benjamin; Narum, Shawn; Rieseberg, Loren H.
Flightlessness in insects enhances diversification and determines assemblage structure across whole communities
Dispersal limitation has been recurrently suggested to shape both macroecological patterns and microevolutionary processes within invertebrates. However, because of potential interactions among biological, environmental, temporal, and spatial variables, causal links among flight-related traits, diversification and spatial patterns of community assembly remain elusive. Integrating genetic variation within species across whole insect assemblages, within a simplified spatial and environmental framework, can be used to reduce the impact of these potentially confounding variables. Here, we used standardized sampling and mitochondrial DNA sequencing for a whole-community characterization of the beetle fauna inhabiting a singular forested habitat (laurel forest) within an oceanic archipelago setting (Canary Islands). The spatial structure of species assemblages together with species-level genetic diversity was compared at the archipelago and island scales for 104 winged and 110 wingless beetle lineages. We found that wingless beetle lineages have: (i) smaller range sizes at the archipelago scale, (ii) lower representation in younger island communities, (iii) stronger population genetic structure, and (iv) greater spatial structuring of species assemblages between and within islands. Our results reveal that dispersal limitation is a fundamental trait driving diversity patterns at multiple hierarchical levels by promoting spatial diversification and affecting the spatial configuration of entire assemblages at both island and archipelago scales.
Salces-Castellano, Antonia; Andújar, Carmelo; López, Heriberto; Pérez-Delgado, Antonio J.; Arribas, Paula; Emerson, Brent C.
Tidal Influence on Seismic Activity During the 2011–2013 El Hierro Volcanic Unrest
The El Hierro volcanic unrest started in July 2011, with an increase in observed seismicity rates and surface deformation. After the initial onset, hypocenters migrated southward through September 2011, culminating in a submarine eruption beginning on October 10, 2011 and finishing in February 2012. The seismic activity continued, with remarkable periods of unrest through 2012 and 2013. The most significant episodes of seismic activity during this unrest are related to magma migration at depth. In this work, we compute tidal stress for each earthquake, at its hypocenter depth, and assign them a tidal stress phase angle. We have found statistically significant correlations between the occurrence of earthquakes and tidal stress phase angles, corresponding mainly to increasing tidal stress change rates. We found primarily that the magnitude of vertical and E‐W horizontal tidal stress values and their changing rates with time were correlated with earthquake occurrence times. We also found that there is no correlation between tides and seismicity at times with no observed surface displacements, suggesting that tidal modulation might be related to overpressure during migration of magma. Tidal modulation changes with depth and the influence of ocean‐loading tides is stronger than the influence of solid Earth tides. Our results support the hypothesis that tidal stress may modulate the seismicity during volcanic unrest, particularly during shallow depth magma migration.
Miguelsanz, Luis; González, Pablo J.; Tiampo, Kristy F.; Fernández Torres, José
A Beginner’s Guide to Osmoprotection by Biostimulants
Water is indispensable for the life of any organism on Earth. Consequently, osmotic stress due to salinity and drought is the greatest threat to crop productivity. Ongoing climate change includes rising temperatures and less precipitation over large areas of the planet. This is leading to increased vulnerability to the drought conditions that habitually threaten food security in many countries. Such a scenario poses a daunting challenge for scientists: the search for innovative solutions to save water and cultivate under water deficit. A search for formulations including biostimulants capable of improving tolerance to this stress is a promising specific approach. This review updates the most recent state of the art in the field.
Jiménez-Arias, David; García-Machado, Francisco J.; Morales-Sierra, Sarai; García-García, Ana L.; Herrera, Antonio J.; Valdés, Francisco; Luis, Juan C.; Borges, Andrés A.
Impact of Desert Dust Events on the Cardiovascular Disease: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Background: Whether or not inhalation of airborne desert dust has adverse health effects is unknown. The present study, based on a systematic review and meta-analysis, was carried out to assess the influence desert dust on cardiovascular mortality, acute coronary syndrome, and heart failure. Methods: A systematic search was made in PubMed and Embase databases for studies published before March 2020. Studies based on daily measurements of desert dust were identified. The meta-analysis evaluated the impact of desert dust on cardiovascular events the same day (lag 0) of the exposure and during several days after the exposure (lags 1 to 5). The combined impact of several days of exposure was also evaluated. The incidence rate ratio (IRR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) was calculated using the inverse variance random effects method. Results: Of the 589 identified titles, a total of 15 studies were selected. The impact of desert dust on the incidence of cardiovascular mortality was statistically significant (IRR = 1.018 (95%CI 1.008–1.027); p < 0.001) in lag 0 of the dust episode, in the following day (lag 1) (IRR = 1.005 (95%CI 1.001–1.009); p = 0.022), and during both days combined (lag 0–1) (IRR = 1.015 (95%CI 1.003–1.028); p = 0.014). Conclusions: The inhalation to desert dust results in a 2% increase (for every 10 µg/m3) in cardiovascular mortality risk.
Domínguez-Rodríguez, Alberto; Báez-Ferrer, Néstor; Abreu-González, Pedro; Rodríguez, Sergio; Díaz, Rocío; Avanzas, Pablo; Hernández-Vaquero, Daniel
Structural Diversity using Hyp “Customizable Units”: Proof‐of‐Concept Synthesis of Sansalvamide‐Related Antitumoral Peptides
The potential of “customizable units” to generate structural diversity for biological screenings is highlighted in this proof‐of‐concept synthesis of new peptides related to the potent antitumoral Sansalvamide A. Using L‐4‐hydroxyproline (Hyp) as a customizable unit in a linear parent peptide, an improved procedure for selective peptide modification was developed. A divergent Hyp scission‐reductive amination process was carried out, affording five linear peptides with cationic residues, and notably, an N‐alkyl moiety that affected the conformation of the peptide. After two steps (saponification and macrocyclization), sixteen differently N1‐substituted linear and cyclic peptides were obtained. For the first time, the activity of the linear and cyclic compounds was compared. Not only some linear analogs but also cyclic compounds with scarcely studied cationic residues were active against MCF7 breast cancer line. Thus, the structural diversity generated from customizable units can be valuable in drug discovery.
Cuevas, Fernando; Saavedra, Carlos J.; Romero-Estudillo, Iván; Boto, Alicia; Ordóñez, Mario; Vergara, Irene
Ovary Signals for Pollen Tube Guidance in Chalazogamous Mangifera indica L.
Most flowering plants show porogamy in which the pollen tubes reach the egg apparatus through the micropyle. However, several species show chalazogamy, an unusual pollen tube growth, in which the pollen tubes reach the embryo sac through the chalaza. While ovary signals for pollen tube growth and guidance have been extensively studied in porogamous species, few studies have addressed the process in chalazogamous species such as mango (Mangifera indica L.), one of the five most important fruit crops worldwide in terms of production. In this study, we characterize pollen–pistil interaction in mango, paying special attention to three key players known to be involved in the directional pollen tube growth of porogamous species such as starch, arabinogalactan proteins (AGPs), and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA). Starch grains were observed in the style and in the ponticulus at anthesis, but their number decreased 1 day after anthesis. AGPs, revealed by JIM8 and JIM13 antibodies, were homogenously observed in the style and ovary, but were more conspicuous in the nucellus around the egg apparatus. GABA, revealed by anti-GABA antibodies, was specifically observed in the transmitting tissue, including the ponticulus. Moreover, GABA was shown to stimulate in vitro mango pollen tube elongation. The results support the heterotrophic growth of mango pollen tubes in the style at the expense of starch, similarly to the observations in porogamous species. However, unlike porogamous species, the micropyle of mango does not show high levels of GABA and starch, although they were observed in the ponticulus and could play a role in supporting the unusual pollen tube growth in chalazogamous species.
Lora Cabrera, Jorge; Pérez Méndez, Verónica; Herrero Romero, María; Hormaza Urroz, José Ignacio