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A continuación se muestran las últimas novedades sobre investigaciones, eventos, actividades y descubrimientos que se llevan a cabo en el Instituto de Productos Naturales y Agrobiología.

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Genetic Characterization of a Plum Landrace Collection from La Palma, Canary Islands

Genetic Characterization of a Plum Landrace Collection from La Palma, Canary Islands

A plum collection located in the island of La Palma, Canary Islands, composed of twenty-nine European and Japanese plums was analyzed using nine simple sequence repeat (SSR) highly polymorphic loci. First, a cytometry flow analysis was performed to determine the ploidy level. Sixteen accessions turned out diploid and thirteen hexaploid. According to morphological characteristics, fourteen of the sixteen diploid accessions were assigned to Prunus salicina, and two accessions to P. cerasifera. All the hexaploid accessions were assigned to P. domestica. The 29 accessions were compared using SSR markers with twenty-two P. domestica accessions maintained at the CITA plum germplasm collection located in Zaragoza, Aragón, Spain. A principal component analysis (PCA) and a clustering approach grouped the accessions according to the assigned species and geographical location, while some synonyms and homonyms were found within La Palma accessions. The two principal components explained 80.3% (67.3% and 13%, respectively) of the total variance. A tree generated with UPGMA hierarchical clustering and Bruvo distance grouped the accessions in two main clusters according to ploidy level and species assignment. The STRUCTURE approach clearly differentiated La Palma diploid accessions and some of the hexaploid accessions from those of the CITA collection. The results obtained could be used for management and conservation purposes of this valuable local plum germplasm.

Pérez Méndez, Verónica; Rodrigo, Javier; Abdallah, Donia; Larranaga, Nerea; Hormaza, José I.

Agronomy, 12(9), 2179: 1-14 (2022)
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Hypochlorous Acid Chemistry in Mammalian Cells—Influence on Infection and Role in Various Pathologies

Hypochlorous Acid Chemistry in Mammalian Cells—Influence on Infection and Role in Various Pathologies

This review discusses the formation of hypochlorous acid HOCl and the role of reactive chlorinated species (RCS), which are catalysed by the enzyme myeloperoxidase MPO, mainly located in leukocytes and which in turn contribute to cellular oxidative stress. The reactions of RCS with various organic molecules such as amines, amino acids, proteins, lipids, carbohydrates, nucleic acids, and DNA are described, and an attempt is made to explain the chemical mechanisms of the formation of the various chlorinated derivatives and the data available so far on the effects of MPO, RCS and halogenative stress. Their presence in numerous pathologies such as atherosclerosis, arthritis, neurological and renal diseases, diabetes, and obesity is reviewed and were found to be a feature of debilitating diseases.

Curieses Andrés, Celia María; Pérez de Lastra, José Manuel; Andrés Juan, Celia; Plou Gasca, Francisco José; Pérez-Lebeña, Eduardo.

International Journal of Molecular Sciences, 23 (18) : 1-46 (2022)
Publicación

Addressing the contribution of small molecule-based biostimulants to the biofortification of maize in a water restriction scenario

Biostimulants have become an asset for agriculture since they are a greener alternative to traditionally used plant protection products. Also, they have gained the farmers’ acceptance due to their effect on enhancing the plant’s natural defense system against abiotic stresses. Besides commercially available complex products, small molecule-based biostimulants are useful for industry and research. Among them, polyamines (PAs) are well-studied natural compounds that can elicit numerous positive responses in drought-stressed plants. However, the studies are merely focused on the vegetative development of the plant. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate how drenching with putrescine (Put) and spermidine (Spd) modified the maize production and the yield quality parameters. First, a dosage optimization was performed, and then the best PA concentrations were applied by drenching the maize plants grown under well-watered (WW) conditions or water deficit (WD). Different mechanisms of action were observed for Put and Spd regarding maize production, including when both PAs similarly improved the water balance of the plants. The application of Put enhanced the quality and quantity of the yield under WW and Spd under WD. Regarding the nutritional quality of the grains, both PAs increased the carbohydrates content, whereas the contribution to the protein content changed by the interaction between compound and growth conditions. The mineral content of the grains was also greatly affected by the water condition and the PA application, with the most relevant results observed when Spd was applied, ending with flour richer in Zn, Cu, and Ca minerals that are considered important for human health. We showed that the exogenous PA application could be a highly efficient biofortification approach. Our findings open a new exciting use to be studied deep in the biostimulant research.

Hernandiz, Alba E.; Jiménez-Arias, David; Morales-Sierra, Sarai; Borges, Andres A.; De Diego, Nuria.

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