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Explosive Eruptions

Integrated constraints on explosive eruption intensification at Santiaguito dome complex, Guatemala

Protracted volcanic eruptions may exhibit unanticipated intensifications in explosive behaviour and attendant hazards. Santiaguito dome complex, Guatemala, has been characterised by century-long effusion interspersed with frequent, small-to-moderate (<2 km high plumes) gas-and-ash explosions. During 2015–2016, explosions intensified generating hazardous ash-rich plumes (up to 7 km high) and pyroclastic flows. Here, we integrate petrological, geochemical and geophysical evidence to evaluate the causes of explosion intensification. Seismic and infrasound signals reveal progressively longer repose intervals between explosions and deeper fragmentation levels as the seismic energy of these events increased by up to four orders of magnitude. Evidence from geothermobarometry, bulk geochemistry and groundmass microlite textures reveal that the onset of large explosions was concordant with a relatively fast ascent of a deeper-sourced (∼17–24 km), higher temperature (∼960–1020 °C) and relatively volatile-rich magma compared to the previous erupted lavas, which stalled at ∼2 km depth and mingled with the left-over mush that resided beneath the pre-2015 lava dome. We interpret that purging driven by the injection of this deep-sourced magma disrupted the long-term activity, driving a transition from low energy shallow shear-driven fragmentation, to high energy deeper overpressure-driven fragmentation that excavated significant portions of the conduit and intensified local volcanic hazards. Our findings demonstrate the value of multi-parametric approaches for understanding volcanic processes and the triggers for enigmatic shifts in eruption style, with the detection of vicissitudes in both monitoring signals and petrological signatures of the eruptive products proving paramount.

Wallace, Paul A.; Lamb, Oliver D.; De Angelis, Silvio; Kendrick, Jackie E.; Hornby, Adrian J.; Díaz-Moreno, Alejandro; González, Pablo J.; von Aulock, Felix W.; Lamur, Anthony; Utley, James E.P.; Rietbrock, Andreas; Chigna, Gustavo; Lavallée, Yan

Earth and Planetary Science Letters 536: 116139 (2020)
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Six new non-native ants

Six new non-native ants (Formicidae) in the Canary Islands and their possible impacts

Biological invasions are one of the main causes of biodiversity loss, especially on oceanic islands. Ants are among the most damaging pests in the world. After systematic sampling of more than 1,000 localities in the Canary Islands, six new exotic ant species are reported for the first time: Pheidole bilimeki (Myrmicinae), Pheidole navigans (Myrmicinae), Strumigenys membranifera (Myrmicinae), Brachymyrmex cordemoyi (Formicinae), Tapinoma darioi (Dolichoderinae) and Technomyrmex pallipes (Dolichoderinae). Moreover, another two recently reported species have been genetically confirmed. Morphological and genetic data were analysed to confirm the identity of the new records. For each species, information regarding identification, distribution, global invasive records and possible impacts is given. The arrival of these species may endanger local biodiversity.

Hernández-Teixidor, David; Pérez-Delgado, Antonio José; Suárez, Daniel; Reyes-López, Joaquin

Journal of Applied Entomology 1-8 (2020)
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Genetic Diversity of Local Peach (Prunus persica)

Genetic Diversity of Local Peach (Prunus persica) Accessions from La Palma Island (Canary Islands, Spain)

Peach (Prunus persica) is an economically important temperate fruit crop due to its edible fruits. Due to the need to develop new varieties better adapted to climate change, it is of great interest to find germplasm adapted to warmer conditions, such as those found in the Canary Islands. Peach was an important crop during the last century in one of those islands (La Palma), but its cultivation has been abandoned in recent years. Currently, commercial production is relict and isolated trees are relegated to family orchards with little management. With the objective to characterize and prevent the loss of local varieties of this crop, peach trees were sampled along La Palma. A total of 89 local peach accessions were prospected and analyzed with 10 single-sequence repeat (SSR) loci, which permitted 28 different genotype profiles to be detected. These genotypes were compared to 95 Spanish peach landraces conserved in an ex situ collection, and 26 additional samples from eight different countries. Results showed that the peach genetic diversity found in La Palma was low. In addition, a relation between La Palma samples and other Spanish peaches was observed, which could indicate the arrival of genetic material from the Iberian Peninsula and subsequent intercrossing and local selection of the genotypes more adapted to the subtropical climate of the island. The population structure reflects a grouping of the samples based on fruit type and geographic origin.

Pérez, Verónica; Larrañaga, Nerea; Abdallah, Donia; Wünsch, Ana; Hormaza Urroz, José Ignacio

Agronomy 10: 457 (2020)

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