The social value of heritage: Balancing the promotion-preservation relationship in the Altamira World Heritage Site, Spain
The designation of World Heritage Sites (WHSs) by UNESCO strengthens the international and national image of heritage destinations in the growing market of cultural tourism. Understanding how different stakeholders interpret the value of cultural heritage is one of the most important assets for balancing the promotion and protection of WHSs. This study draws on the case of the Altamira Prehistoric Cave WHS (Spain), whose preservation is under threat and constant debate. It explores factors determining the social value of heritage, namely: existence, aesthetic, economic, and legacy value. In doing so, this paper contributes to emerging debates on heritage management and tourist destinations. Data were collected using two surveys, one focused on visitors, with a total of 1047 valid surveys, and another on the Spanish population as a WHS host community, with a total of 1000 valid surveys. The analysis of these surveys shows how the existence, aesthetic, economic and legacy value dimensions of cultural heritage can build up brands around WHSs. The social-value dimension of cultural heritage therefore affects the market potential of WHSs, whose market potential is closely related to the education levels of a given society. These findings provide valuable information and insights for academics, destination managers and policy-makers in the debate about the preservation and tourism branding of Altamira. This will allow different stakeholders to identify opportunities to develop synergies between tourism promotion and heritage preservation, to both strengthen the brand image of a WHS and preserve its heritage.
Parga-Dans, Eva; Alonso-González, Pablo; Otero Enríquez, Raimundo
Species functional traits and abundance as drivers of multiplex ecological networks: first empirical quantification of inter-layer edge weights
Many vertebrate species act as both plant pollinators and seed-dispersers, thus interconnecting these processes, particularly on islands. Ecological multilayer networks are a powerful tool to explore interdependencies between processes; however, quantifying the links between species engaging in different types of interactions (i.e. inter-layer edges) remains a great challenge. Here, we empirically measured inter-layer edge weights by quantifying the role of individually marked birds as both pollinators and seed-dispersers of Galápagos plant species over an entire year. Although most species (80%) engaged in both functions, we show that only a small proportion of individuals actually linked the two processes, highlighting the need to further consider intra-specific variability in individuals' functional roles. Furthermore, we found a high variation among species in linking both processes, i.e. some species contribute more than others to the modular organization of the multilayer network. Small and abundant species are particularly important for the cohesion of pollinator seed-dispersal networks, demonstrating the interplay between species traits and neutral processes structuring natural communities.
Hervías-Parejo, Sandra; Tur, Carmen; Heleno, Rubén; Nogales, Manuel; Timóteo, Sérgio; Travaser, Anna
Food habits of the Macaronesian Sparrowhawk (Accipiter Nisus Granti) on Madeira
The Eurasian Sparrowhawk (Accipiter nisus) is a small bird of prey distributed throughout Europe and Asia and closely linked to forest environments. It is a predator of a wide diversity of prey, primarily birds (Newton et al. 1986). On the mainland, the male Eurasian Sparrowhawk typically captures small birds (40–120 g in mass), whereas females (nearly twice the mass of males) prey on larger birds (up to 500 g; Opdam 1975, Newton 1978).
González, Yolanda; Hervías-Parejo, Sandra; Pereira, Estefanía; Vulcano, Antonio; Álvarez, Soledad; Gouveia, Cátia; Nunes, Marta; Castelló, Laura; Fagundes, Isabel; Coelho, Nádia; Delgado, Guillermo, Nogales, Manuel
Prorocentroic Acid, a Neuroactive Super-Carbon-Chain Compound from the Dinoflagellate Prorocentrum hoffmannianum
Prorocentroic acid (PA) was isolated from the dinoflagellate Prorocentrum hoffmannianum. Relative configurations for its 35 asymmetric centers, were determined by analysis of NMR data including heteronuclear couplings and quantum mechanical calculations. PA was tested by using murine cortical neurons grown on microelectrode-arrays. Long term exposure to subtoxic concentrations induced a significant reorganization of neuronal signaling, mainly by changes in the bursting activity. The observed effects could be due to the activation of a plasticity process.
Domínguez, Humberto J.; Cabrera-García, David; Cuadrado, Cristina; Novelli, Antonello; Fernández-Sánchez, M. Teresa; Fernández, José J.; Hernández Daranas, Antonio
El Vino “Natural”: Alimento, Cultura, Tradición, Patrimonio y… ¡Salud!
Según la Ley de la Viña y el Vino, éste “es el alimento natural obtenido exclusivamente por fermentación alcohólica, total o parcial, de uva fresca, estrujada o no, de mosto de uva” (Art. 2 Ley 24/2003, Gobierno de España). La RAE, en su séptima acepción de “natural” como adjetivo, define aquello “Que se produce por solas las fuerzas de la naturaleza, como contrapuesto a sobrenatural y milagroso”. Por tanto, la relación entre vino y alimento queda establecida en el marco normativo y definitorio español. Sin embargo, el vino continúa siendo el único producto alimentario no sujeto a regulación de etiquetado en cuanto a ingredientes y aditivos en todo el mundo. Ante esta tesitura comenzamos nuestra línea de investigación sobre vino, patrimonio, alimentación y salud, preguntándonos: ¿es sano/insano cualquier vino independientemente de su proceso productivo y propiedades organolépticas?, ¿son estos factores tenidos en cuenta en la certificación de la calidad del vino? La respuesta inmediata es que es imposible saberlo. ¿Cuáles son las consecuencias de esta situación anómala, y qué podemos hacer desde la investigación aplicada?
Parga-Dans, Eva; Alonso-González, Pablo
Protective effects of culture extracts (CB08035-SCA and CB08035-SYP) from Marinobacter hydrocarbonoclasticus (strain CB08035) against oxidant-induced stress in human colon carcinoma Caco-2 cells
The present study investigated the effect of culture extracts (CB08035-SCA and CB08035-SYP) from Marinobacter hydrocarbonoclasticus (strain CB08035) on cell viability and the potential protective effects attributed to molecular mechanisms underlying antioxidant response to survive oxidative stress injuries. Caco-2 cells were submitted to oxidative stress by treatment with tert-butyl hydroperoxide (t-BOOH). Both extracts prevented cell damage and enhanced activity of antioxidant defenses (NQO1 and GST activities and GSH levels) reduced by treatment with t-BOOH. Increased ROS and caspase 3/7 activity induced by t-BOOH were dose-dependently prevented when cells were treated with the extracts. CB08035-SCA caused up-regulation of Nrf2, AKT1 and Bcl-2 gene expressions. Moreover, CB08035-SCA and CB08035-SYP treatments reduced significantly Bax, BNIP3, APAF1, ERK1, JNK1, MAPK1, NFκB1, TNFα, IL-6, IL-1β and HO-1 gene expressions of apoptosis, proinflammation and oxidative stress induced by t-BOOH. CB08035-SCA and CB08035-SYP CPE extracts confer a significant protection against oxidative insults to cells. Our results show that culture extracts CB08035-SCA and CB08035-SYP from M. hydrocarbonoclasticus (strain CB08035) appeared to have antioxidant potential, based on their ability to protect antioxidant enzymes and mRNA gene expressions linked to apoptosis/oxidative pathways. These results suggest that culture extracts CB08035-SCA and CB08035-SYP can be a potential ingredient in the pharmaceutical and cosmeceutical industries.
Martínez, María-Aránzazu; Ares, Irma; Martínez, Marta; López-Torres, Bernardo; Rodríguez, José-Luis; Maximiliano, Jorge-Enrique; Martínez-Larrañaga, María-Rosa; Anadón, Arturo; de la Rosa, José-Manuel; Cueto, Mercedes
Saharan Dust Events in the Dust Belt -Canary Islandsand the Observed Association with in-Hospital Mortality of Patients with Heart Failure
Recent studies have found increases in the cardiovascular mortality rates during poor air quality events due to outbreaks of desert dust. In Tenerife, we collected (2014–2017) data in 829 patients admitted with a heart failure diagnosis in the Emergency Department of the University Hospital of the Canaries. In this region, concentrations of PM10 and PM2.5 are usually low (~20 and 10 g/m3), but they increase to 360 and 115 g/m3, respectively, during Saharan dust events. By using statistical tools (including multivariable logistic regressions), we compared in-hospital mortality of patients with heart failure and exposure to PM10 and PM2.5 during dust and no-dust events. We found that 86% of in-hospital heart failure mortality cases occurred during Saharan dust episodes that resulted in PM10 > 50 g/m3 (interquartile range: 71–96 g/m3). A multivariate analysis showed that, after adjusting for other covariates, exposure to Saharan dust events associated with PM10 > 50 g/m3 was an independent predictor of heart failure in-hospital mortality (OR = 2.79, 95% CI (1.066–7.332), p = 0.03). In conclusion, this study demonstrates that exposure to high Saharan dust concentrations is independently associated with in-hospital mortality in patients with heart failure.
Dominguez-Rodriguez, Alberto; Baez-Ferrer, Néstor; Rodríguez, Sergio; Avanzas, Pablo; Abreu-Gonzalez, Pedro; Terradellas, Enric; Cuevas, Emilio; Basart, Sara
O Antipatrimónio: Fetichismo do Passado e Dominação do Presente
O património é hoje uma palavra na boca de todos. Foi criado por nações e instituições, estudado por intelectuais e cientistas, criticado pela sua capacidade de gerar conflitos em relação à identidade e à memória. Tem sido mercantilizado globalmente com base em critérios semelhantes, da Tailândia à Bolívia. Mas essas investigações partiram principalmente do pressuposto de que o património é algo dado, bom e valioso em si mesmo e que sempre existiu. Por isso, o conceito de património não tem sido questionado como categoria, ou seja, como forma de relação própria das sociedades fetichistas e, portanto, historicamente determinada e com raízes histórico-culturais intrinsecamente ligadas ao surgimento e expansão do capitalismo e à epistemologia do iluminismo, moderna e ocidental. Este livro propõe uma crítica à categoria «património» a partir de uma etnografia da região de Maragatería, Espanha. A etnografia analisa empiricamente as transformações e processos que levam, ou não, o património a existir entre os maragatos.
Tandem Radical Fragmentation/Cyclization of Guanidinylated Monosaccharides Grants Access to Medium-Sized Polyhydroxylated Heterocycles
The fragmentation of anomeric alkoxyl radicals (ARF) and the subsequent cyclization promoted by hypervalent iodine provide an excellent method for the synthesis of guanidino-sugars. The methodology described herein is one of the few existing general methodologies for the formation of medium-sized exo- and endoguanidine-containing heterocycles presenting a high degree of oxygenation in their structure.
Santana, Andrés G.; González Martín, Concepción C.
Big sales, no carrots: Assessment of pesticide policy in Spain
This paper explores Spanish pesticide policy with a focus on developments during the last decade. Spain is one of the greatest global consumers of conventional pesticides and leader in various related rankings among European Union countries. However, reviews of pesticide policies examining the key plans, facts, strategies and stakeholders are largely lacking. In providing an overview of Spanish responses to the European Directive 2009/128/EC on the Sustainable Use of Pesticides, this article contributes to filling this research gap. Spanish National Action Plans lack measurable quantitative objectives for reduction in the use of conventional pesticides and further implementation of Integrated Pest Management. Spanish National Action Plans also lack strategies for informing citizens about pesticide residues, and efficient means of keeping up to date with the authorisation of new active substances and delivery of pesticide use and sales data, in time and form. Moreover, there are no clear trends in conventional pesticide use reduction and sales, despite a significant reduction in the use of the more toxic active substances. Overall, this paper reveals various important shortcomings and incongruences in Spanish pesticide policy, which deserve further scholarly exploration and should be a matter of concern for public bodies.
Alonso-González, Pablo; Parga-Dans, Eva; Pérez Luzardo, Octavio