Protective effects of culture extracts (CB08035-SCA and CB08035-SYP) from Marinobacter hydrocarbonoclasticus (strain CB08035) against oxidant-induced stress in human colon carcinoma Caco-2 cells
The present study investigated the effect of culture extracts (CB08035-SCA and CB08035-SYP) from Marinobacter hydrocarbonoclasticus (strain CB08035) on cell viability and the potential protective effects attributed to molecular mechanisms underlying antioxidant response to survive oxidative stress injuries. Caco-2 cells were submitted to oxidative stress by treatment with tert-butyl hydroperoxide (t-BOOH). Both extracts prevented cell damage and enhanced activity of antioxidant defenses (NQO1 and GST activities and GSH levels) reduced by treatment with t-BOOH. Increased ROS and caspase 3/7 activity induced by t-BOOH were dose-dependently prevented when cells were treated with the extracts. CB08035-SCA caused up-regulation of Nrf2, AKT1 and Bcl-2 gene expressions. Moreover, CB08035-SCA and CB08035-SYP treatments reduced significantly Bax, BNIP3, APAF1, ERK1, JNK1, MAPK1, NFκB1, TNFα, IL-6, IL-1β and HO-1 gene expressions of apoptosis, proinflammation and oxidative stress induced by t-BOOH. CB08035-SCA and CB08035-SYP CPE extracts confer a significant protection against oxidative insults to cells. Our results show that culture extracts CB08035-SCA and CB08035-SYP from M. hydrocarbonoclasticus (strain CB08035) appeared to have antioxidant potential, based on their ability to protect antioxidant enzymes and mRNA gene expressions linked to apoptosis/oxidative pathways. These results suggest that culture extracts CB08035-SCA and CB08035-SYP can be a potential ingredient in the pharmaceutical and cosmeceutical industries.
Martínez, María-Aránzazu; Ares, Irma; Martínez, Marta; López-Torres, Bernardo; Rodríguez, José-Luis; Maximiliano, Jorge-Enrique; Martínez-Larrañaga, María-Rosa; Anadón, Arturo; de la Rosa, José-Manuel; Cueto, Mercedes
Saharan Dust Events in the Dust Belt -Canary Islandsand the Observed Association with in-Hospital Mortality of Patients with Heart Failure
Recent studies have found increases in the cardiovascular mortality rates during poor air quality events due to outbreaks of desert dust. In Tenerife, we collected (2014–2017) data in 829 patients admitted with a heart failure diagnosis in the Emergency Department of the University Hospital of the Canaries. In this region, concentrations of PM10 and PM2.5 are usually low (~20 and 10 g/m3), but they increase to 360 and 115 g/m3, respectively, during Saharan dust events. By using statistical tools (including multivariable logistic regressions), we compared in-hospital mortality of patients with heart failure and exposure to PM10 and PM2.5 during dust and no-dust events. We found that 86% of in-hospital heart failure mortality cases occurred during Saharan dust episodes that resulted in PM10 > 50 g/m3 (interquartile range: 71–96 g/m3). A multivariate analysis showed that, after adjusting for other covariates, exposure to Saharan dust events associated with PM10 > 50 g/m3 was an independent predictor of heart failure in-hospital mortality (OR = 2.79, 95% CI (1.066–7.332), p = 0.03). In conclusion, this study demonstrates that exposure to high Saharan dust concentrations is independently associated with in-hospital mortality in patients with heart failure.
Dominguez-Rodriguez, Alberto; Baez-Ferrer, Néstor; Rodríguez, Sergio; Avanzas, Pablo; Abreu-Gonzalez, Pedro; Terradellas, Enric; Cuevas, Emilio; Basart, Sara
Displacements Monitoring over Czechia by IT4S1 System for Automatised Interferometric Measurements using Sentinel-1 Data
The Sentinel-1 satellite system continuously observes European countries at a relatively high revisit frequency of six days per orbital track. Given the Sentinel-1 configuration, most areas in Czechia are observed every 1–2 days by different tracks in a moderate resolution. This is attractive for various types of analyses by various research groups. The starting point for interferometric (InSAR) processing is an original data provided in a Single Look Complex (SLC) level. This work represents advantages of storing data augmented to a specifically corrected level of data, SLC-C. The presented database contains Czech nationwide Sentinel-1 data stored in burst units that have been pre-processed to the state of a consistent well-coregistered dataset of SLC-C. These are resampled SLC data with their phase values reduced by a topographic phase signature, ready for fast interferometric analyses (an interferogram is generated by a complex conjugate between two stored SLC-C files). The data can be used directly into multitemporal interferometry techniques, e.g., Persistent Scatterers (PS) or Small Baseline (SB) techniques applied here. A further development of the nationwide system utilising SLC-C data would lead into a dynamic state where every new pre-processed burst triggers a processing update to detect unexpected changes from InSAR time series and therefore provides a signal for early warning against a potential dangerous displacement, e.g., a landslide, instability of an engineering structure or a formation of a sinkhole. An update of the processing chain would also allow use of cross-polarised Sentinel-1 data, needed for polarimetric analyses. The current system is running at a national supercomputing centre IT4Innovations in interconnection to the Czech Copernicus Collaborative Ground Segment (CESNET), providing fast on-demand InSAR results over Czech territories. A full nationwide PS processing using data over Czechia was performed in 2017, discovering several areas of land deformation. Its downsampled version and basic findings are demonstrated within the article.
Lazecký, Milan: Hatton, Emma; González, Pablo J.; Hlavácová, Ivana; Jiránková, Eva; Dvorák, Frantisek; Sustr, Zdenek, Martinovic, Jan
Mitogenomic phylogenetics of Diochus occultus n. sp., a palaeoendemic endogean species within the tribe Diochini (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae: Staphylininae)
The tribe Diochini has a worldwide distribution, with 2 and 74 epigean species within the genera Antarctothius and Diochus respectively. Recent phylogenetic studies suggest a sister relationship of Diochini and a lineage formed by Xantholinini, Maorothiini, and Othiini, within the subfamily Staphylininae. Here we describe the first known endogean representative of Diochini, Diochus occultus n. sp., and provide the first two complete mitogenomes for the tribe, corresponding to the two European Diochus species: Diochus occultus n. sp. and Diochus staudingeri. These sequences were combined with 40 additional mitogenomes from representatives within Staphylininae, Paederinae, Silphidae, and Aleocharinae, and COI sequences from 5 additional species of Diochus to conduct a series of mitogenomic phylogenetic and dating analyses. The estimated molecular phylogeny is fully consistent with previous studies based on morphology and molecular data, finding a sister relationship of Diochini with a clade formed by Xantholinini and Othiini (Maorothiini not sampled). Dating analyses inferred an early split of the tribe Diochini at 140-156 Mya. Morphology shows clear differences in the aedeagal and external morphology of D. occultus n. sp. and D. staudingeri, whereas a sister relationship of these taxa is found in the phylogenetic analyses, with the split dated at 48-61 Mya. Although the study of additional Palaearctic Diochus species will be required to conclusively establish that D. occultus n. sp. is a palaeoendemic taxon sister to D. staudingeri, associated to forests of Abies pinsapo in the south of the Iberian Peninsula, this conclusion is consistent with the ancient estimated age of speciation, endogean habitat specificity, low dispersal capacity (flightless species), and microendemicity of D. occultus. This is also consistent with the continued emersion of the Betic sub-plate along its tectonic evolution. The estimated ages of diversification of the Paederinae-Staphylininae lineage are also discussed.
Hernando, Carles; Andújar, Carmelo
Rare new bicyclic cembranoid ethers and a novel trihydroxy prenylated guaiane from the Xisha Soft Coral Lobophytum sp
Seven new cembrane-type diterpenes, lobophytolins C–I (3–9), and one new prenylated-guiane-type diterpene, lobophytolin J (10), along with six known related ones (1, 2, 11–14), have been isolated from the soft coral Lobophytum sp. collected off the Xisha Island in the South China Sea. Their structures were elucidated by extensive spectroscopic analysis and quantum mechanical (QM)-NMR methods. The absolute configuration of lobophytolin H (8) was determined by the application of the modified Mosher’s method and chemical transformation. Lobophytolin D (4) exhibited promising cytotoxicities in in vitro bioassays against HT-29, Capan-1, A549, and SNU-398 human cancer cell lines with IC50 values of 4.52, 6.62, 5.17, and 6.15 μM, respectively.
Li, Song-Wei; Cuadrado, Cristina; Huan, Xia-Juan; Yao, Li-Gong; Miao, Ze-Hong; Hernández Daranas, Antonio; Guo, Yue-Wei
The limited spatial scale of dispersal in soil arthropods revealed with whole‐community haplotype‐level metabarcoding
Soil arthropod communities are highly diverse and critical for ecosystem functioning. However, our knowledge of spatial structure and the underlying processes of community assembly are scarce, hampered by limited empirical data on species diversity and turnover. We implement a high‐throughput sequencing approach to generate comparative data for thousands of arthropods at three hierarchical levels: genetic, species and supra‐specific lineages. A joint analysis of the spatial arrangement across these levels can reveal the predominant processes driving the variation in biological assemblages at the local scale. This multihierarchical approach was performed using haplotype‐level COI metabarcoding of entire communities of mites, springtails and beetles from three Iberian mountain regions. Tens of thousands of specimens were extracted from deep and superficial soil layers and produced comparative phylogeographic data for >1,000 codistributed species and nearly 3,000 haplotypes. Local assemblage composition differed greatly between grasslands and forests and, within each habitat, showed strong spatial structure and high endemicity. Distance decay was high at all levels, even at the scale of a few kilometres or less. The local distance decay patterns were self‐similar for the haplotypes and higher hierarchical entities, and this fractal structure was similar in all regions, suggesting that uniform processes of limited dispersal determine local‐scale community assembly. Our results from whole‐community metabarcoding provide insight into how dispersal limitations constrain mesofauna community structure within local spatial settings over evolutionary timescales. If generalized across wider areas, the high turnover and endemicity in the soil locally may indicate extremely high richness globally, challenging our current estimations of total arthropod diversity on Earth.
Arribas, Paula; Andújar, Carmelo; Salces-Castellano, Antonio; Emerson, Brent C.; Vogler, Alfried P.
The importance of threatened host plants for arthropod diversity: the fauna associated with dendroid Euphorbia plants endemic to the Canary and Madeira archipelagos
The arthropod fauna associated with seven endemic dendroid Euphorbia was sampled and studied in the Canary and Madeira archipelagos. The stem-diameter of the plants was considered, along with their genetic affinity, habitat and number of localities and islands where present. The arthropod assemblages and richness found on each Euphorbia species were statistically analysed, to determine which variables influenced the survey results. A total of 179 arthropod species were found, identified, and classified into characteristic or accompanying fauna, according to their relationship with the plants and their types of diet. Faunal assemblages and arthropod species richness differed among the Euphorbia species, each thus showing a strong and almost unique host relationship. Species richness increased with the architectural complexity of the host-plant species and number of localities and islands where present. The similarity of faunal assemblages was mainly related to stem diameter. Among diet types, a great number of exclusive and/or endemic taxa associated with this plant genus were xylophages. Our survey revealed that rich arthropod communities are associated with the genus Euphorbia, especially on its rare endangered species, and highlights the need to protect their host plants. This in turn will contribute to the conservation of their arthropod communities and their ecosystem functions.
Hernández-Teixidor, David; Santos, Irene; Suárez, Daniel; Oromí, Pedro
Alkane-, alkene-, alkyne-γ-lactones and ryanodane diterpenes from aeroponically grown Persea indica roots
This work presents the study of the roots of the Macaronesian paleoendemism Persea indica (L.) Spreng. The root biomass of this protected tree species has been produced by soil-less aeroponic culture under controlled environment. This system has important advantages over traditional plant production techniques because it provides opportunities to optimize the yield of metabolite production under well-controlled conditions, thereby facilitating commercial-scale production of bioactive compounds. Thus, for the first time a study of this type has permitted the isolation from the roots of seven undescribed dextrorotatory lactones: the alkane-γ-lactones (+)-majoranolide and (+)-dihydromajorenolide, the alkene-γ-lactones (+)-majorenolide and (+)-majorenolide acetate, and the alkyne-γ-lactones, (+)-majorynolide, (+)-majorynolide acetate and (+)-isomajorynolide. In addition, thirteen known compounds were also isolated including two possible avocadofurane precursors, avocadynone acetate and avocadenone acetate, the monoterpene esters cis- and trans-p-coumarate of (−)-borneol, and the ryanoid diterpenes cinnzeylanone, anhidrocinnzeylanine, cinnzeylanine, cinnzeylanol, epiryanodol, perseanol, cinncassiol E, perseaindicol and secoperseanol. The configuration at C-14 de two ryanodane diterpenes has also been revised in this work. Furthermore, (−)-borneol cis-p-coumarate has showed to be insecticidal to S. littoralis and cytotoxic to insect (Sf9) cells, (+)-majorenolide antifeedant to aphids and cytotoxic to Sf9, cinnceylanol antifeedant and insecticidal to S. littoralis, and (+)-majorynolide (2), insecticidal against S. littoralis, cytotoxic to Sf9 and nematicidal, suggesting a defensive role for these compounds.
Fraga, Braulio M.; Díaz, Carmen E.; Bolaños, Patricia; Bailén, María; Andrés, María Fe; González-Coloma, Azucena
LiCSAR: An Automatic InSAR Tool for Measuring and Monitoring Tectonic and Volcanic Activity
Space-borne Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) Interferometry (InSAR) is now a key geophysical tool for surface deformation studies. The European Commission’s Sentinel-1 Constellation began acquiring data systematically in late 2014. The data, which are free and open access, have global coverage at moderate resolution with a 6 or 12-day revisit, enabling researchers to investigate large- scale surface deformation systematically through time. However, full exploitation of the potential of Sentinel-1 requires specific processing approaches as well as the efficient use of modern computing and data storage facilities. Here we present LiCSAR, an operational system built for large-scale interferometric processing of Sentinel-1 data. LiCSAR is designed to automatically produce geocoded wrapped and unwrapped interferograms and coherence estimates, for large regions, at 0.001° resolution (WGS-84 system). The products are continuously updated in a frequency depending on prioritised regions (monthly, weekly or live update strategy). The products are open and freely accessible and downloadable through an online portal. We describe the algorithms, processing, and storage solutions implemented in LiCSAR, and show several case studies that use LiCSAR products to measure tectonic and volcanic deformation. We aim to accelerate the uptake of InSAR data by researchers as well as non-expert users by mass producing interferograms and derived products.
Lazecký, Milan; Spaans, Karsten; González, Pablo J.; Maghsoudi, Yasser; Morishita, Yu; Albino, Fabien; Elliot, John; Greenall, Nicholas; Hatton, Emma; Hooper, Andrew; Juncu, Daniel; McDougall, Alistair; Walters, Richard J.; Watson, C. Scott; Weiss, Jonathan R.; Wright, Tim J.
Synthesis of Seven Membered Oxacycles: Recent Developments and New Approaches
This minireview focuses on recent advances in the synthesis of seven‐membered ring oxacycles, whether saturated, unsaturated, fused or isolated. We cover a remarkable variety of strategies and methods developed during the past two decades, based mainly on cyclizations, ring‐closing metathesis, conjugate additions, and ring expansions. The cyclizations can be generated directly or triggered through an oxocarbenium ion, carbocation or iminium‐type species. Also discussed are ring‐closing metatheses and conjugate additions, in which the precursor has the functionalities and correct stereochemistry of the final seven‐membered ring oxacycle. Finally, examples of ring expansions are described, predominantly involving cyclopropanes and epoxides. These cases include reactions governed by the intermediate species and others, where the precursor holds the stereochemical information for the final oxacycle.
Sinka, Victoria; Martín, Víctor S.; Cruz, Daniel A.; Padrón, Juan I.