This section includes a list of the latest IPNA scientific articles published in journals included in the Science Citation Index (SCI).

In DIGITAL.CSIC, institutional repository of the CSIC, you can find the complete list of scientific articles since 1962, as well as other collections of interest such as congresses, theses, books, informative material, etc. of the centre. The aim of DIGITAL.CSIC is to organize, preserve and disseminate in open access the results of our research.

In the institutional repository of the CSIC, you can find the complete list of scientific articles, as well as other collections of interest such as congresses, theses, books, informative material, etc.

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Explosive Eruptions

Integrated constraints on explosive eruption intensification at Santiaguito dome complex, Guatemala

Protracted volcanic eruptions may exhibit unanticipated intensifications in explosive behaviour and attendant hazards. Santiaguito dome complex, Guatemala, has been characterised by century-long effusion interspersed with frequent, small-to-moderate (<2 km high plumes) gas-and-ash explosions. During 2015–2016, explosions intensified generating hazardous ash-rich plumes (up to 7 km high) and pyroclastic flows. Here, we integrate petrological, geochemical and geophysical evidence to evaluate the causes of explosion intensification. Seismic and infrasound signals reveal progressively longer repose intervals between explosions and deeper fragmentation levels as the seismic energy of these events increased by up to four orders of magnitude. Evidence from geothermobarometry, bulk geochemistry and groundmass microlite textures reveal that the onset of large explosions was concordant with a relatively fast ascent of a deeper-sourced (∼17–24 km), higher temperature (∼960–1020 °C) and relatively volatile-rich magma compared to the previous erupted lavas, which stalled at ∼2 km depth and mingled with the left-over mush that resided beneath the pre-2015 lava dome. We interpret that purging driven by the injection of this deep-sourced magma disrupted the long-term activity, driving a transition from low energy shallow shear-driven fragmentation, to high energy deeper overpressure-driven fragmentation that excavated significant portions of the conduit and intensified local volcanic hazards. Our findings demonstrate the value of multi-parametric approaches for understanding volcanic processes and the triggers for enigmatic shifts in eruption style, with the detection of vicissitudes in both monitoring signals and petrological signatures of the eruptive products proving paramount.

Wallace, Paul A.; Lamb, Oliver D.; De Angelis, Silvio; Kendrick, Jackie E.; Hornby, Adrian J.; Díaz-Moreno, Alejandro; González, Pablo J.; von Aulock, Felix W.; Lamur, Anthony; Utley, James E.P.; Rietbrock, Andreas; Chigna, Gustavo; Lavallée, Yan

Earth and Planetary Science Letters 536: 116139 (2020)
Six new non-native ants

Six new non-native ants (Formicidae) in the Canary Islands and their possible impacts

Biological invasions are one of the main causes of biodiversity loss, especially on oceanic islands. Ants are among the most damaging pests in the world. After systematic sampling of more than 1,000 localities in the Canary Islands, six new exotic ant species are reported for the first time: Pheidole bilimeki (Myrmicinae), Pheidole navigans (Myrmicinae), Strumigenys membranifera (Myrmicinae), Brachymyrmex cordemoyi (Formicinae), Tapinoma darioi (Dolichoderinae) and Technomyrmex pallipes (Dolichoderinae). Moreover, another two recently reported species have been genetically confirmed. Morphological and genetic data were analysed to confirm the identity of the new records. For each species, information regarding identification, distribution, global invasive records and possible impacts is given. The arrival of these species may endanger local biodiversity.

Hernández-Teixidor, David; Pérez-Delgado, Antonio José; Suárez, Daniel; Reyes-López, Joaquin

Journal of Applied Entomology 1-8 (2020)
Genetic Diversity of Local Peach (Prunus persica)

Genetic Diversity of Local Peach (Prunus persica) Accessions from La Palma Island (Canary Islands, Spain)

Peach (Prunus persica) is an economically important temperate fruit crop due to its edible fruits. Due to the need to develop new varieties better adapted to climate change, it is of great interest to find germplasm adapted to warmer conditions, such as those found in the Canary Islands. Peach was an important crop during the last century in one of those islands (La Palma), but its cultivation has been abandoned in recent years. Currently, commercial production is relict and isolated trees are relegated to family orchards with little management. With the objective to characterize and prevent the loss of local varieties of this crop, peach trees were sampled along La Palma. A total of 89 local peach accessions were prospected and analyzed with 10 single-sequence repeat (SSR) loci, which permitted 28 different genotype profiles to be detected. These genotypes were compared to 95 Spanish peach landraces conserved in an ex situ collection, and 26 additional samples from eight different countries. Results showed that the peach genetic diversity found in La Palma was low. In addition, a relation between La Palma samples and other Spanish peaches was observed, which could indicate the arrival of genetic material from the Iberian Peninsula and subsequent intercrossing and local selection of the genotypes more adapted to the subtropical climate of the island. The population structure reflects a grouping of the samples based on fruit type and geographic origin.

Pérez, Verónica; Larrañaga, Nerea; Abdallah, Donia; Wünsch, Ana; Hormaza Urroz, José Ignacio

Agronomy 10: 457 (2020)
Synthetic Approaches to Phosphasugars

Synthetic Approaches to Phosphasugars (2-oxo-1,2-oxaphosphacyclanes) Using the Anomeric Alkoxyl Radical β-Fragmentation Reaction as the Key Step

The anomeric alkoxyl radical β-fragmentation (ARF) of carbohydrates possessing an electron-withdrawing group (EWG) at C2, promoted by PhI(OAc)2/I2, gives rise to an acyclic iodide through which a pentavalent atom of phosphorus can be introduced via the Arbuzov reaction. After selective hydrolysis and subsequent cyclization, the phosphonate or phosphinate intermediates can be converted into 2-deoxy-1-phosphahexopyranose and 2-deoxy-1-phosphapentopyranose sugars. The ARF of carbohydrates with an electron-donor group (EDG) at C2 proceeds by a radical-polar crossover mechanism, and the cyclization occurs by nucleophilic attack of a conveniently positioned phosphonate or phosphinate group to the transient oxocarbenium ion. This alternative methodology leads to 5-phosphasugars with a 4-deoxy-5-phosphapentopyranose framework. The structure and conformation of the 2-oxo-1,2-oxaphosphinane and 2-oxo-1,2-oxaphospholane ring systems in different carbohydrate models have been studied by NMR and X-ray crystallography.

Hernández-Guerra, Daniel; Kennedy, Alan R.; León, Elisa I.; Martín, Ángeles; Pérez-Martín, Inés; Rodríguez Morales, María S.; Suárez, Ernesto

Journal of Organic Chemistry 85 (7): 4861-4880 (2020)
Use of glycerol and propylene glycol as additives

Use of glycerol and propylene glycol as additives in heat-treated goat colostrum

This experiment aimed to evaluate the suitability of glycerol and propylene glycol to reduce microbial count and preserve immune properties in heat-treated goat colostrum. Colostrum samples from 11 goats were each divided into 9 aliquots. Different concentrations (2, 6, 10, and 14%; vol/vol) of either glycerol or propylene glycol were added to the aliquots. Phosphate buffer solution was added to one aliquot, which was set as the control (CG). After the respective additions, all colostrum samples were heat treated at 56°C for 1 h. After cooling, aerobic mesophilic bacteria were cultured. The samples were frozen until free fatty acid, IgG, IgA, and IgM concentrations and chitotriosidase activity were measured. No differences were found in aerobic mesophilic bacteria counts between either 10 or 14% glycerol and propylene glycol additives. These additions reduced bacterial count to a greater extent than CG, and 2 or 6% additions. Colostrum IgG concentration was not affected by either of the additives or their concentrations. The propylene glycol additive reduced IgA and IgM concentrations and chitotriosidase activity, compared with CG. Conversely, glycerol did not affect any of the studied immune variables. In conclusion, glycerol addition to goat colostrum before heat treatment is suitable to enhance bacterial reduction, whereas colostrum immune properties were not affected.

Morales-delaNuez, Antonio; Hernández-Castellano, Lorenzo E.; Moreno-Indias, Isabel; Sánchez-Macías, Davinia; Argüello, Anastasio; Castro, Noemí

Journal of Dairy Science 103(3): 2756-2761 (2020)
Somatic cells: A potential tool to accelerate low-fat goat cheese ripening

Somatic cells: A potential tool to accelerate low-fat goat cheese ripening

Demand for healthy products has increased interest in low-fat caprine cheeses. These are characterised by higher hardness, cohesiveness and masticability, and lower odour and flavour intensities, than full-fat cheeses, which has led to evaluation of alternative manufacturing methods to improve sensory characteristics. Addition of milk somatic cells was used as a potential tool to improve the quality of fresh low-fat caprine cheese made with either raw or pasteurised milk. Proteolysis of α-CN, α-CN, and para-κ-CN was increased in low-fat cheeses made with raw milk when somatic cells were added. In contrast, reduced proteolysis was observed in low-fat cheeses made from pasteurised milk, except for that of β-CN, which was increased. Moreover, the addition of somatic cells increased the rate of lipolysis in low-fat pasteurised cheese. These changes in the rates of proteolysis and lipolysis could improve softness and flavour of low-fat cheeses.

Sánchez-Macías, Davinia; Hernández-Castellano, Lorenzo E.; Morales-delaNuez, Antonio; Herrera-Chávez, B.; Argüello, Anastasio; Castro, Noemí

International Dairy Journal 102: 104598 (2020)

Composition and biocidal properties of essential oil from pre-domesticated Spanish Satureja Montana

The aim of this study was to develop a chemically stable plant following a pre-domestication process and the valorization of its essential oil for the production of biopesticides. This study was conducted during four growing seasons to give a pre-domesticated population (SAMO-0). The resulting pre-domesticated population increased the hydrodistilled oil yield (average 0.45%) and maintained a stable yield of dry material (44.5%). The plant material was submitted to pilot plant scale steam distillation under three pressures (0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 bar) with lower yield (average 0.15%). The essential oil showed a carvacrol / p-cymene chemotype. The pre-domestication process increased β-myrcene, α- and γ-terpinene, p-cymene, thymol and β-bisabolene; and decreased α-thujene and carvacrol. The steam distillation increased the oil content in α-thujene, α-pinene, α-terpinene, p-cymene and trans-caryophyllene, and decreased borneol, thymoquinone thymol and β-bisabolene. Pressure increased α-terpinene, thymol and carvacrol Additionally, the study of the biocidal effects (against the insect pests Spodoptera littoralis, Myzus persicae and Leptinotarsa decemlineata and the phytopathogenic nematode Meloydogine javanica) of the EOs showed that overall, the most active oils were the hydrodistilled (to all insect species), followed by the steam distilled oils with higher carvacrol and thymol content (pressures of 1.5 and 1.0 bar). Carvacrol and thymol were responsible for the activity of these oils on M. persicae, and L. decemlineata but only partially on S. littoralis. The steam distilled oils showed strong nematicidal activity against M. javanica that could be partially explained by their content in active carvacrol and thymol.

Navarro-Rocha, Juliana; Andrés, María Fe; Díaz, Carmen E.; Burillo, Jesús; González-Coloma, Azucena

Industrial Crops and Products 145: 111958 (2020)

Unrest signals after 46 years of quiescence at Cumbre Vieja, La Palma, Canary Islands

Monogenetic eruptions are the most common volcanic activity in the world. However, unrest monitoring data are scarce due to the long intervening quiescence periods. This study analyzes unrest signals recorded in one of the largest monogenetic fields in the Canary Islands, Cumbre Vieja (La Palma). Two seismic swarms were registered in October 2017 and February 2018 with b-values of 1.6 ± 0.1 and 2.3 ± 0.2 respectively suggesting an intense magmatic fluids contribution, gas and/or magma. Both swarms were linked to changes in gas emissions. Increases in hydrogen concentration, and (R/R) up to 7.52 ± 0.05, were recorded before the first swarm, at the sampling point closest to where seismicity was located, indicating a deep gas input. After the second swarm, increases in (R/R) and thoron soil concentration were recorded at two locations. This dataset is compatible with a stalled magmatic intrusion at ca. 25 km depth, with an estimated volume between 5.5·10 km and 3·10 km.

Torres-González, Pedro A.; Luengo-Oroz, Natividad; Lamolda, Héctor; D'Alessandro, Walter; Albert, Helena; Iribarren, Ilazkiñe; Moure-García, David; Soler, Vicente

Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research 392: 106757 (2020)

Plant Growth Promotion Abilities of Phylogenetically Diverse Mesorhizobium Strains: Effect in the Root Colonization and Development of Tomato Seedlings

Mesorhizobium contains species widely known as nitrogen-fixing bacteria with legumes, but their ability to promote the growth of non-legumes has been poorly studied. Here, we analyzed the production of indole acetic acid (IAA), siderophores and the solubilization of phosphate and potassium in a collection of 24 strains belonging to different Mesorhizobium species. All these strains produce IAA, 46% solubilized potassium, 33% solubilize phosphate and 17% produce siderophores. The highest production of IAA was found in the strains Mesorhizobium ciceri CCANP14 and Mesorhizobium tamadayense CCANP122, which were also able to solubilize potassium. Moreover, the strain CCANP14 showed the maximum phosphate solubilization index, and the strain CCANP122 was able to produce siderophores. These two strains were able to produce cellulases and cellulose and to originate biofilms in abiotic surfaces and tomato root surface. Tomato seedlings responded positively to the inoculation with these two strains, showing significantly higher plant growth traits than uninoculated seedlings. This is the first report about the potential of different Mesorhizobium species to promote the growth of a vegetable. Considering their use as safe for humans, animals and plants, they are an environmentally friendly alternative to chemical fertilizers for non-legume crops in the framework of sustainable agriculture.

Menéndez, Esther; Pérez-Yépez, Juan; Hernández, Mercedes; Rodríguez-Pérez, Ana; Velázquez, Encarna; León-Barrios, Milagros

Microorganism 8(3): 412 (2020)

Climate drives community-wide divergence within species over a limited spatial scale: evidence from an oceanic island

Geographic isolation substantially contributes to species endemism on oceanic islands when speciation involves the colonisation of a new island. However, less is understood about the drivers of speciation within islands. What is lacking is a general understanding of the geographic scale of gene flow limitation within islands, and thus the spatial scale and drivers of geographical speciation within insular contexts. Using a community of beetle species, we show that when dispersal ability and climate tolerance are restricted, microclimatic variation over distances of only a few kilometres can maintain strong geographic isolation extending back several millions of years. Further to this, we demonstrate congruent diversification with gene flow across species, mediated by Quaternary climate oscillations that have facilitated a dynamic of isolation and secondary contact. The unprecedented scale of parallel species responses to a common environmental driver for evolutionary change has profound consequences for understanding past and future species responses to climate variation.

Salces-Castellano, Antonia; Patiño, Jairo; Alvarez, Nadir; Andújar, Carmelo; Arribas, Paula; Braojos-Ruiz, Juan José; del Arco-Aguilar, Marcelino; García-Olivares, Víctor; Karger, Dirk N.; López, Heriberto; Manolopoulou, Ioanna; Oromí, Pedro; Pérez-Delgado, Antonio J.; Peterman, William E.; Rijsdijk, Kenneth F.; Emerson, Brent C.

Ecology Letters 23(2): 305-315 (2020)

Insulin-loaded mucoadhesive nanoparticles based on mucin-chitosan complexes for oral delivery and diabetes treatment

In this study, insulin-loaded nanoparticles (NPs) were prepared via self-gelation method using chitosan and aqueous soluble snail mucin as natural polymers. Herein, mucins were ionically interacted with chitosan at different concentrations to obtained insulin-loaded NPs, labelled as A1 (1:1) (i.e., chitosan 2 % w/v + mucin 2 % w/v) and A2 (2:1) (chitosan 4 % w/v + mucin 2 % w/v), using poloxamer and poly vinyl alcohol as solid surfactant. Such formulation was selected to provide the necessary dynamics for the formation of the nanoparticles while maintaining the surface properties that will favor the encapsulation of insulin. Each system was characterized in terms of their particle size distribution, morphology, zeta potential, and polydispersity index. In vitro release of insulin was evaluated in acidic solution (pH 1.2) and phosphate buffer solution (pH 7.4), and the hypoglycaemic activity was evaluated in diabetes rats. The prepared insulin-loaded NPs displayed particles with relatively smooth surfaces and an average particle size of 479.6 and 504.1 nm for A1 and A2, respectively. Zeta potential and polydispersity index, ranged from 22.1 to 31.2 mV and 0.155–0.185, respectively. The encapsulating efficiency for the systems A1 and A2 were 88.6 and 92.5, respectively, and a self-sustained release of encapsulated insulin was observed for over a period of 8 h. In vivo studies revealed a pronounced hypoglycaemic effect in diabetic rats after peroral administration of the insulin-loaded NPs compared to the effect caused by free oral insulin solution. In addition, both the pharmacokinetic and toxicity results showed low plasma clearance of insulin and no signs of toxicity on the liver enzyme and cell viability, which suggested good biocompatibility of the NPs formulations. Overall, the formation of NPs of insulin with chitosan and snail mucin represents a potentially safe and promising approach to protect insulin and enhance its peroral delivery.

Mumuni, Momoh A.; Kenechukwu, Franklin C.; Ofokansi, Kenneth C.; Attama, Anthony A.; Díaz Díaz, David

Carbohydrate Polymers 229(1): 115506 (2020)

Behavioural complementarity among frugivorous birds and lizards can promote plant diversity in island ecosystems

The behavioural complementarity of fruit-eating animals is thought to exert a key role in plant community assembly. However, a mechanistic understanding of the causal links between the two processes is still lacking. This study assesses whether complementarity between dispersers in feeding and microhabitat-use behaviour enhances community-scale dispersal services, resulting in a more diverse community of seedlings. We used a Bayesian approach to connect a comprehensive database of seed dispersal effectiveness at a community scale with a transition probability model that accounts for behavioural complementarity. Our model system was the thermosclerophyllous shrubland of the Canary Islands. There, fleshy-fruited plants rely on two types of frugivores: lizards and birds. Lizards consumed all plant species and preferentially used open areas, whereas birds foraged for small single-seeded fruits and dispersed their seeds beneath plants. Through feeding on different sets of plants, they generated a rich seed-rain community. By diversifying the microhabitat of deposition, more species could find suitable recruitment sites. Distinct foraging and microhabitat-use choices led to complementary dispersal services. Lizards ensured that all plant species were present in the seedling community, while birds promoted a more even distribution of them. As a result, diversity in the community of seedlings was enhanced. Overall, our work underscores that behavioural complementarity promotes diversity in the early-regenerating plant communities. These enhanced dispersal services rely on the presence of all functional groups. Thus, in communities where frugivores display unique behaviours, preserving a diverse community of dispersers should be a conservation target. A free Plain Language Summary can be found within the Supporting Information of this article.

Morán-López, Teresa; González-Castro, Aarón; Morales, Juan Manuel; Nogales, Manuel 

Functional Ecology 34(1): 182-193 (2020)

A validated workflow for rapid taxonomic assignment and monitoring of a national fauna of bees (Apiformes) using high throughput DNA barcoding

Improved taxonomic methods are needed to quantify declining populations of insect pollinators. This study devises a high-throughput DNA barcoding protocol for a regional fauna (United Kingdom) of bees (Apiformes), consisting of reference library construction, a proof-of-concept monitoring scheme, and the deep barcoding of individuals to assess potential artefacts and organismal associations. A reference database of cytochrome oxidase c subunit 1 (cox1) sequences including 92.4% of 278 bee species known from the UK showed high congruence with morphological taxon concepts, but molecular species delimitations resulted in numerous split and (fewer) lumped entities within the Linnaean species. Double tagging permitted deep Illumina sequencing of 762 separate individuals of bees from a UK-wide survey. Extracting the target barcode from the amplicon mix required a new protocol employing read abundance and phylogenetic position, which revealed 180 molecular entities of Apiformes identifiable to species. An additional 72 entities were ascribed to nuclear pseudogenes based on patterns of read abundance and phylogenetic relatedness to the reference set. Clustering of reads revealed a range of secondary operational taxonomic units (OTUs) in almost all samples, resulting from traces of insect species caught in the same traps, organisms associated with the insects including a known mite parasite of bees, and the common detection of human DNA, besides evidence for low-level cross-contamination in pan traps and laboratory procedures. Custom scripts were generated to conduct critical steps of the bioinformatics protocol. The resources built here will greatly aid DNA-based monitoring to inform management and conservation policies for the protection of pollinators.

Creedy, Thomas J.; Norman, Hannah; Tang, Cuong Q.; Qing Chin, Kai; Andujar, Carmelo; Arribas, Paula; O'Connor, Rory S.; Carvell, Claire; Notton, David G.; Vogler, Alfred P.

Molecular Ecology Resources 20(1): 40-53 (2020)

Biopolymer/Glycopolypeptide-Blended Scaffolds: Synthesis, Characterization and Cellular Interactions

Three-dimensional (3D) scaffolds formed from natural biopolymers gelatin and chitosan that are chemically modified by galactose have shown improved hepatocyte adhesion, spheroid geometry and functions of the hepatocytes. Galactose specifically binds to the hepatocytes via the asialoglycoprotein receptor (ASGPR) and an increase in galactose density further improves the hepatocyte proliferation and functions. In this work, we aimed to increase the galactose density within the biopolymeric scaffold by physically blending the biopolymers chitosan and gelatin with an amphiphlic β-galactose polypeptide (PPO-GP). PPO-GP, is a di-block copolymer with PPO and β-galactose polypeptide, exhibits lower critical solution temperature and is entrapped within the scaffold through hydrophobic interactions. The uniform distribution of PPO-GP within the scaffold was confirmed by fluorescence microscopy. SEM and mechanical testing of the hybrid scaffolds indicated pore size, inter connectivity and compression modulus similar to the scaffolds made from 100 % biopolymer. The presence of the PPO-GP on the surface of the scaffold was tested monitoring the interaction of an analogous mannose containing PPO-GP scaffold and the mannose binding lectin Con-A. In vitro cell culture experiments with HepG2 cells were performed on GLN-GP and CTS-GP and their cellular response was compared with GLN and CTS scaffolds for a period of seven days. Within three days of culture the Hep G2 cells formed multicellular spheroids on GLN-GP and CTS-GP more efficiently than on the GLN and CTS scaffolds. The multicellular spheroids were also found to infiltrate more in GLN-GP and CTS-GP scaffolds and able to maintain their round morphology as observed by live/dead and SEM imaging.

Dhaware, Vinita; Díaz Díaz, David ; Sen Gupta, Sayem

Chemistry - An Asian Journal 14(24): 4837-4846 (2019)

Heritage in danger. The collapse of commercial archaeology in Spain

As in most European countries and elsewhere, Spanish commercial archaeology is a business model based on the theoretical and technical principles of safeguarding heritage that thrived during the 1990s and 2000s. However, nearly half of the Spanish archaeological companies closed by 2014, stressing the drama associated with the redundancy of its workforce in a mere five-year period and the threat to heritage protection and management. The current context of global crisis has impacted this sector, which is on the brink of extinction. This emphasizes the need for a new paradigm of archaeological heritage management in the 21st century. This breakdown calls into question the extent to which archaeology can generate initiatives of sustainable heritage management. By analysing data derived from an empirical study of Spanish archaeological companies between 2009 and 2017, this paper explores the underlying factors behind the collapse of commercial archaeology. In doing so, it contributes to the current global debate about the future possibilities of heritage management in a post-industrial context.

Parga Dans, Eva

Archaeological Dialogues 26(2): 111-122 (2019)

Unifying macroecology and macroevolution to answer fundamental questions about biodiversity

The study of biodiversity started as a single unified field that spanned both ecology and evolution and both macro and micro phenomena. But over the 20th century, major trends drove ecology and evolution apart and pushed an emphasis towards the micro perspective in both disciplines. Macroecology and macroevolution re-emerged as self-consciously distinct fields in the 1970s and 1980s, but they remain largely separated from each other. Here, we argue that despite the challenges, it is worth working to combine macroecology and macroevolution. We present 25 fundamental questions about biodiversity that are answerable only with a mixture of the views and tools of both macroecology and macroevolution.

McGill, Brian J.; Chase, Jonathan M.; Hortal, Joaquín ; Overcast, Isaac; Rominger, Andrew J.; Rosindell, James; Borges, Paulo A.V.; Emerson, Brent C.; Etienne, Rampal; Hickerson, Michael J.; Mahler, D.Luke; Massol, Francois; McGaughran, Angela; Neves, Pedro; Parent, Christine; Patiño, Jairo; Ruffley, Megan; Wagner, Catherine E.; Gillespie, Rosemary

Global Ecology and Biogeography 28(12): 1925-1936 (2019)