Dispersal ability and its consequences for population genetic differentiation and diversification
Dispersal ability is known to influence geographical structuring of genetic variation within species, with a direct relationship between low vagility and population genetic structure, which can potentially give rise to allopatric speciation. However, our general understanding of the relationship between dispersal ability, population differentiation and lineage diversification is limited. To address this issue, we sampled mitochondrial DNA variation within lineages of beetles and spiders across the Canary Islands to explore the relationships between dispersal ability, differentiation within lineages and diversification. We found positive relationships between population genetic structure and diversification for both beetles and spiders. Comparisons between dispersive and non-dispersive lineages revealed significant differences for both lineage differentiation and diversification. For both taxa, non-dispersive lineages had stronger population genetic structure. Genus-level endemic species richness and proxies for diversification rate within genera were higher in non-dispersive taxa for both beetles and spiders. Comparisons of average and maximum node divergences within genera suggest that species turnover may be higher in non-dispersive genera. Our results reveal a model where dispersal limitation may shape the diversity of lineages across evolutionary timescales by positively influencing intraspecific and species diversity, moderated by higher extinction rates compared to more dispersive lineages.
Suárez, Daniel; Arribas, Paula; Jiménez-García, Eduardo; Emerson, Brent C.
Proceedings of the Royal Society B, 289(1975): 1-10 (2022)
Nitration of Flavonoids and Tocopherols as Potential Modulators of Nitrosative Stress—A Study Based on Their Conformational Structures and Energy Content
Vitamin E and dietary flavonoids are natural substances with antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities, showing little or no side effects. Fruit and vegetable diets based on flavonoids and vitamin E provide a benefit to hypertensive subjects by regulating blood pressure. However, the exact mechanism of their anti-inflammatory properties has not been chemically explained. It has been proposed that their anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory properties may be related to their ability to scavenge free radicals. We here describe the chemical considerations that flavonoids and tocopherols required to act as potential scavengers of the •NO2 radical, a key radical in the cellular oxidative process. Moreover, we provide a theoretical study of the energy content of the nitrated compounds in the different possible positions. With this analysis, it was predicted that five flavonoids from different families (quercetin (flavanol), naringenin (flavanone), luteolin (flavone), catechin (flavanol) and aurantinidin (anthocyanin)) and three tocopherols (β-, γ-, and δ-tocopherol, but not α-tocopherol) could act as potential scavengers of the harmful •NO2 radical. These results may help to explain their beneficial effect on cardiovascular health through its antioxidant role. To validate our theoretical considerations, we also examined uric acid, a well-known •NO2-scavenger. We hope this study could help to elucidate the potential scavenging activity of other dietary antioxidants.
Pérez de Lastra, José Manuel; Andrés Juan, Celia; Plou Gasca, Francisco José; Pérez-Lebeña, Eduardo.
Isobenzofuran-1(3H)-one derivatives: Amoebicidal activity and program cell death in Acanthamoeba castellanii Neff
The genus Acanthamoeba is characterized by being a group of ubiquitous and free-living amoebae that inhabit a variety of environments. Generally, human infections by this parasite are associated with Acanthamoeba keratitis, especially in contact lens wearers, and with chronic but fatal granulomatous amoebic meningoencephalitis. Current treatments used for eradication of amoeba from infection sites represent a challenge for pharmacotherapy, due to the lack of effective treatment and the amoebae highly resistant to anti-amoebic drugs. In this study, we describe the results of the assessment of the IC50 of 10 isobenzofuran-1(3H)-one derivatives (QOET) against four Acanthamoeba strains. The compounds QOET-3 and QOET-9 were the selected derivatives with the lowest IC50 in A. castellanii Neff trophozoites (73.71 ± 0.25 and 69.99 ± 15.32 μM, respectively). Interestingly, analysis of the compound effects on the cell apoptosis-like features showed that both active molecules triggered programmed cell death (PCD) in A. castellanii Neff. The results obtained in this study highlights that isobenzofuranone derivatives could represent an interesting source for developing novel antiamoebic drugs.