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The Development of METAL-WRF Regional Model for the Description of Dust Mineralogy in the Atmosphere

The mineralogical composition of airborne dust particles is an important but often neglected parameter for several physiochemical processes, such as atmospheric radiative transfer and ocean biochemistry. We present the development of the METAL-WRF module for the simulation of the composition of desert dust minerals in atmospheric aerosols. The new development is based on the GOCART-AFWA dust module of WRF-Chem. A new wet deposition scheme has been implemented in the dust module alongside the existing dry deposition scheme. The new model includes separate prognostic fields for nine (9) minerals: illite, kaolinite, smectite, calcite, quartz, feldspar, hematite, gypsum, and phosphorus, derived from the GMINER30 database and also iron derived from the FERRUM30 database. Two regional model sensitivity studies are presented for dust events that occurred in August and December 2017, which include a comparison of the model versus elemental dust composition measurements performed in the North Atlantic (at Izaña Observatory, Tenerife Island) and in the eastern Mediterranean (at Agia Marina Xyliatos station, Cyprus Island). The results indicate the important role of dust minerals, as dominant aerosols, for the greater region of North Africa, South Europe, the North Atlantic, and the Middle East, including the dry and wet depositions away from desert sources. Overall, METAL-WRF was found to be capable of reproducing the relative abundances of the different dust minerals in the atmosphere. In particular, the concentration of iron (Fe), which is an important element for ocean biochemistry and solar absorption, was modeled in good agreement with the corresponding measurements at Izaña Observatory (22% overestimation) and at Agia Marina Xyliatos site (4% overestimation). Further model developments, including the implementation of newer surface mineralogical datasets, e.g., from the NASA-EMIT satellite mission, can be implemented in the model to improve its accuracy.

Solomos, Stavros; Spyrou, Christos; Barreto, África; Rodríguez, Sergio; González, Yenny; Neophytou, Marina K. A.; Mouzourides, Petros; Bartsotas, Nikolaos S.; Kalogeri, Christina; Nickovic, Slobodan; Vukovic Vimic, Ana; Vujadinovic Mandic, Mirjam; Pejanovic, Goran; Cvetkovic, Bojan; Amiridis, Vassilis; Sykioti, Olga; Gkikas, Antonis; Zerefos, Christos.

Atmosphere 14(11): 1615 (2023)
Combining in-situ monitoring and remote sensing to detect spatial patterns of volcanic sulphur impact on pine needles

Combining in-situ monitoring and remote sensing to detect spatial patterns of volcanic sulphur impact on pine needles

Volcanic eruptions have a strong environmental impact on surrounding forests. Trees are affected by mechanical damage, tephra deposition and volcanic gases. Oceanic islands are shaped by relatively frequent volcanic eruptions and thus offer the opportunity to study the effect of volcanic activity on biodiversity. We investigate the impact of volcanic gas emissions and tephra deposition during the 2021 Tajogaite eruption on the Canary Pine forests of the island of La Palma, Spain, characterized by monospecific stands of the endemic pine species Pinus canariensis C. Sm. ex D.C. Large quantities of volcanic sulphur dioxide caused chlorotic damage up to approximately 7 km around the crater, followed by widespread resprouting of P. canariensis. To detect the spatial pattern of impacts, we sampled P. canariensis needles from all over the island of La Palma and analyzed their sulphur (S), nitrogen (N) and carbon (C) content. We found a strong increase of S needle content close to the crater, while C decreased significantly. S levels were strongly related to distance to the crater, C and N were mostly influenced by S content. Trees affected by volcanic gases allocate resources to resprouting, leading to lower levels of C due to translocation of C as a building block. Surprisingly, we found higher N levels in needles with high levels of S and a less clear pattern compared to C, likely due to a multitude of environmental factors influencing N needle levels. We investigated how canopy damage patterns detected in Sentinel-2 remote sensing imagery after the eruption correlated to the in-situ needle contents. However, we did not find a clear correlation between in-situ needle values and spectral responses in remote sensing. While satellite images were well suited to analyse large scale patterns of canopy damage following the eruption, needle levels varied strongly on a local, tree-based level, which is not reflected in remote sensing imagery.

Weiser, Frank; Walentowitz, Anna; Baumann, Esther; Shatto, Christopher; Guerrero-Campos, María; Jentsch, Anke; Nogales, Manuel; Medina, Félix Manuel; Vetaas, Ole Reidar; Beierkuhnlein, Carl.

Forest Ecology and Management, 549(1), 121468: 1-17 (2023)
Conformational control enables boroxine-to-boronate cage metamorphosis

Conformational control enables boroxine-to-boronate cage metamorphosis

The discovery of molecular organic cages (MOCs) is inhibited by the limited organic-chemical space of the building blocks designed to fulfill strict geometric requirements for efficient assembly. Using intramolecular attractive or repulsive non-covalent interactions to control the conformation of flexible systems can effectively augment the variety of building blocks, ultimately facilitating the exploration of new MOCs. In this study, we introduce a set of boronic acid tripods that were designed using rational design principles. Conformational control was induced by extending the tripod's arms by a 2,3-dimethylbenzene unit, leading to the efficient formation of a tetrapodal nanometer-sized boroxine cage. The new building block's versatility was demonstrated by performing cage metamorphosis upon adding an aromatic tetraol. This led to a quantitative boroxine-to-boronate transformation and a topological shift from tetrahedral to trigonal bipyramidal.

Rondelli, Manuel; Delgado-Hernández, Samuel; Hernández Daranas, Antonio; Martín, Tomás.

Chemical Science: 1-8 (2023)


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Friday, 25 November 2022