The social value of heritage: Balancing the promotion-preservation relationship in the Altamira World Heritage Site, Spain
The designation of World Heritage Sites (WHSs) by UNESCO strengthens the international and national image of heritage destinations in the growing market of cultural tourism. Understanding how different stakeholders interpret the value of cultural heritage is one of the most important assets for balancing the promotion and protection of WHSs. This study draws on the case of the Altamira Prehistoric Cave WHS (Spain), whose preservation is under threat and constant debate. It explores factors determining the social value of heritage, namely: existence, aesthetic, economic, and legacy value. In doing so, this paper contributes to emerging debates on heritage management and tourist destinations. Data were collected using two surveys, one focused on visitors, with a total of 1047 valid surveys, and another on the Spanish population as a WHS host community, with a total of 1000 valid surveys. The analysis of these surveys shows how the existence, aesthetic, economic and legacy value dimensions of cultural heritage can build up brands around WHSs. The social-value dimension of cultural heritage therefore affects the market potential of WHSs, whose market potential is closely related to the education levels of a given society. These findings provide valuable information and insights for academics, destination managers and policy-makers in the debate about the preservation and tourism branding of Altamira. This will allow different stakeholders to identify opportunities to develop synergies between tourism promotion and heritage preservation, to both strengthen the brand image of a WHS and preserve its heritage.
Parga-Dans, Eva; Alonso-González, Pablo; Otero Enríquez, Raimundo
Protective effects of culture extracts (CB08035-SCA and CB08035-SYP) from Marinobacter hydrocarbonoclasticus (strain CB08035) against oxidant-induced stress in human colon carcinoma Caco-2 cells
The present study investigated the effect of culture extracts (CB08035-SCA and CB08035-SYP) from Marinobacter hydrocarbonoclasticus (strain CB08035) on cell viability and the potential protective effects attributed to molecular mechanisms underlying antioxidant response to survive oxidative stress injuries. Caco-2 cells were submitted to oxidative stress by treatment with tert-butyl hydroperoxide (t-BOOH). Both extracts prevented cell damage and enhanced activity of antioxidant defenses (NQO1 and GST activities and GSH levels) reduced by treatment with t-BOOH. Increased ROS and caspase 3/7 activity induced by t-BOOH were dose-dependently prevented when cells were treated with the extracts. CB08035-SCA caused up-regulation of Nrf2, AKT1 and Bcl-2 gene expressions. Moreover, CB08035-SCA and CB08035-SYP treatments reduced significantly Bax, BNIP3, APAF1, ERK1, JNK1, MAPK1, NFκB1, TNFα, IL-6, IL-1β and HO-1 gene expressions of apoptosis, proinflammation and oxidative stress induced by t-BOOH. CB08035-SCA and CB08035-SYP CPE extracts confer a significant protection against oxidative insults to cells. Our results show that culture extracts CB08035-SCA and CB08035-SYP from M. hydrocarbonoclasticus (strain CB08035) appeared to have antioxidant potential, based on their ability to protect antioxidant enzymes and mRNA gene expressions linked to apoptosis/oxidative pathways. These results suggest that culture extracts CB08035-SCA and CB08035-SYP can be a potential ingredient in the pharmaceutical and cosmeceutical industries.
Martínez, María-Aránzazu; Ares, Irma; Martínez, Marta; López-Torres, Bernardo; Rodríguez, José-Luis; Maximiliano, Jorge-Enrique; Martínez-Larrañaga, María-Rosa; Anadón, Arturo; de la Rosa, José-Manuel; Cueto, Mercedes
Saharan Dust Events in the Dust Belt -Canary Islandsand the Observed Association with in-Hospital Mortality of Patients with Heart Failure
Recent studies have found increases in the cardiovascular mortality rates during poor air quality events due to outbreaks of desert dust. In Tenerife, we collected (2014–2017) data in 829 patients admitted with a heart failure diagnosis in the Emergency Department of the University Hospital of the Canaries. In this region, concentrations of PM10 and PM2.5 are usually low (~20 and 10 g/m3), but they increase to 360 and 115 g/m3, respectively, during Saharan dust events. By using statistical tools (including multivariable logistic regressions), we compared in-hospital mortality of patients with heart failure and exposure to PM10 and PM2.5 during dust and no-dust events. We found that 86% of in-hospital heart failure mortality cases occurred during Saharan dust episodes that resulted in PM10 > 50 g/m3 (interquartile range: 71–96 g/m3). A multivariate analysis showed that, after adjusting for other covariates, exposure to Saharan dust events associated with PM10 > 50 g/m3 was an independent predictor of heart failure in-hospital mortality (OR = 2.79, 95% CI (1.066–7.332), p = 0.03). In conclusion, this study demonstrates that exposure to high Saharan dust concentrations is independently associated with in-hospital mortality in patients with heart failure.
Dominguez-Rodriguez, Alberto; Baez-Ferrer, Néstor; Rodríguez, Sergio; Avanzas, Pablo; Abreu-Gonzalez, Pedro; Terradellas, Enric; Cuevas, Emilio; Basart, Sara
Self-compatibility in peach [Prunus persica (L.) Batsch]: patterns of diversity surrounding the S-locus and analysis of SFB alleles
Self-incompatibility (SI) to self-compatibility (SC) transition is one of the most frequent and prevalent evolutionary shifts in flowering plants. Prunus L. (Rosaceae) is a genus of over 200 species most of which exhibit a Gametophytic SI system. Peach [Prunus persica (L.) Batsch; 2n = 16] is one of the few exceptions in the genus known to be a fully selfcompatible species. However, the evolutionary process of the complete and irreversible loss of SI in peach is not well understood and, in order to fill that gap, in this study 24 peach accessions were analyzed. Pollen tube growth was controlled in self-pollinated flowers to verify their self-compatible phenotypes. The linkage disequilibrium association between alleles at the S-locus and linked markers at the end of the sixth linkage group was not significant (P > 0.05), except with the closest markers suggesting the absence of a signature of negative frequency dependent selection at the S-locus. Analysis of SFB1 and SFB2 protein sequences allowed identifying the absence of some variable and hypervariable domains and the presence of additional α-helices at the C-termini. Molecular and evolutionary analysis of SFB nucleotide sequences showed a signature of purifying selection in SFB2, while the SFB1 seemed to evolve neutrally. Thus, our results show that the SFB2 allele diversified after P. persica and P. dulcis (almond) divergence, a period which is characterized by an important bottleneck, while SFB1 diversified at a transition time between the bottleneck and population expansion.
Abdallah, Donia; Baraket, Ghada; Pérez Méndez, Verónica: Hannachi, Amel Salhi; Hormaza, José I.
First record of intertidal oribatid mites (Acari, Oribatida) from the Canaries – a new species and its complete ontogeny
A new species of intertidal oribatid mites from Tenerife is described and its full ontogenetic development is given in detail. Thalassozetes canariensis sp. nov. can easily be distinguished from its congeners by its characteristic notogastral cuticular pattern showing loosely distributed irregular elevations, and its rectangular median sternal cavity. Based on morphology, Thalassozetes canariensis sp. nov. is most closely related to the Mediterranean T. riparius; both species share a small transversal band-like notogastral light spot and the longitudinal orientation of lyrifissure iad. The juvenile morphology of T. canariensis sp. nov. conforms basically to those of known Thalassozetes juveniles but there are discrepancies in certain aspects that require further research into all known species. This report of T. canariensis sp. nov. from Tenerife is the first record of an intertidal mite for the Canaries, and also for the Eastern Atlantic area. Further records of this species within the area may be expected.
Pfindstl, Tobias; De la Paz, Juan Carlos; Hernández-Teixidor, David
Linking seascape with landscape genetics: Oceanic currents favour colonization across the Galápagos Islands by a coastal plant
Coastal plants are terrestrial organisms for which ocean surface currents often act as long‐distance dispersal vectors (thalassochorous species) favouring broad distributions and connecting distant populations. However, few studies have statistically assessed the role of currents in modulating gene flow and species distributions of terrestrial organisms. Here we evaluate the hypothesis that some thalassochorous plants exhibit population connectivity, presumably due to effective seed dispersal driven by sea currents.
Galápagos Islands (Ecuador).
Salt bush (Cryptocarpus pyriformis Kunth), a Galápagos native and locally widespread coastal angiosperm.
Using 1806 SNPs obtained by ddRADseq, we evaluated the genetic structure and differentiation of the Galápagos salt bush. To assess the role of sea currents in modulating inter‐population gene flow, four explicit hypotheses were tested using reciprocal causal modelling and spatial eigenvector analysis: (a) isolation by sea resistance, considering that only sea dispersal is possible; (b) isolation by sea and inland resistance, considering that inland dispersal is also possible; (c) isolation by barrier, considering the sea as an obstacle to seed dispersal; and (d) isolation by geographical distance.
Low differentiation and little genetic structure were detected among populations of C. pyriformis. Pairwise genetic distances between populations from different islands were significantly correlated with cost distances calculated from sea‐current direction and speed. Nonetheless, inland dispersal also accounted for some gene flow within each island.
Extensive and frequent seed dispersal by sea has apparently favoured strong inter‐island genetic connectivity within Galápagos. A combination of methods developed for terrestrial and marine domains (landscape and seascape genetics) aids in understanding how landscape features modulate gene flow of coastal plant species, as these terrestrial organisms are highly dependent on the sea for seed dispersal.
Arjona, Yurena; Fernández-López, Javier; Navascués, Miguel; Álvarez, Nadir; Nogales, Manuel; Vargas, Pablo
Vino de Tea (pine heartwood wine) from La Palma (Spain): ethnographic and physic-chemical characterization of a unique fermented product
This paper presents the results of a novel study of Vino de Tea (pine heartwood wine) from the island of La Palma (Canary Islands, Spain). The aim is to investigate its differential characteristics and contribute to typifying it within the Denomination of Origin ‘Wines of La Palma’. The analysis is based on a mixed approach combining a qualitative ethnographic approach (22 interviews) and quantitative physic-chemical methods in a sample of 16 wines. The ethnographical study revealed the tradition and techniques of elaboration behind Vino de Tea. In turn, the physic-chemical analysis revealed by chromatography a significant presence of α-terpineol due to elaboration in pine barrels or casks. These samples were compared with a Greek Retsina wine, revealing the differences between these two traditional wines. These data suggest that Vino de Tea is a unique product with distinctive characteristics and potential health benefits, owing to its significant content of α-terpineol resulting from its fermentation in Canary pine casks.
Alonso-González, Pablo; Parga-Dans, Eva
Displacements Monitoring over Czechia by IT4S1 System for Automatised Interferometric Measurements using Sentinel-1 Data
The Sentinel-1 satellite system continuously observes European countries at a relatively high revisit frequency of six days per orbital track. Given the Sentinel-1 configuration, most areas in Czechia are observed every 1–2 days by different tracks in a moderate resolution. This is attractive for various types of analyses by various research groups. The starting point for interferometric (InSAR) processing is an original data provided in a Single Look Complex (SLC) level. This work represents advantages of storing data augmented to a specifically corrected level of data, SLC-C. The presented database contains Czech nationwide Sentinel-1 data stored in burst units that have been pre-processed to the state of a consistent well-coregistered dataset of SLC-C. These are resampled SLC data with their phase values reduced by a topographic phase signature, ready for fast interferometric analyses (an interferogram is generated by a complex conjugate between two stored SLC-C files). The data can be used directly into multitemporal interferometry techniques, e.g., Persistent Scatterers (PS) or Small Baseline (SB) techniques applied here. A further development of the nationwide system utilising SLC-C data would lead into a dynamic state where every new pre-processed burst triggers a processing update to detect unexpected changes from InSAR time series and therefore provides a signal for early warning against a potential dangerous displacement, e.g., a landslide, instability of an engineering structure or a formation of a sinkhole. An update of the processing chain would also allow use of cross-polarised Sentinel-1 data, needed for polarimetric analyses. The current system is running at a national supercomputing centre IT4Innovations in interconnection to the Czech Copernicus Collaborative Ground Segment (CESNET), providing fast on-demand InSAR results over Czech territories. A full nationwide PS processing using data over Czechia was performed in 2017, discovering several areas of land deformation. Its downsampled version and basic findings are demonstrated within the article.
Lazecký, Milan: Hatton, Emma; González, Pablo J.; Hlavácová, Ivana; Jiránková, Eva; Dvorák, Frantisek; Sustr, Zdenek, Martinovic, Jan
Mitogenomic phylogenetics of Diochus occultus n. sp., a palaeoendemic endogean species within the tribe Diochini (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae: Staphylininae)
The tribe Diochini has a worldwide distribution, with 2 and 74 epigean species within the genera Antarctothius and Diochus respectively. Recent phylogenetic studies suggest a sister relationship of Diochini and a lineage formed by Xantholinini, Maorothiini, and Othiini, within the subfamily Staphylininae. Here we describe the first known endogean representative of Diochini, Diochus occultus n. sp., and provide the first two complete mitogenomes for the tribe, corresponding to the two European Diochus species: Diochus occultus n. sp. and Diochus staudingeri. These sequences were combined with 40 additional mitogenomes from representatives within Staphylininae, Paederinae, Silphidae, and Aleocharinae, and COI sequences from 5 additional species of Diochus to conduct a series of mitogenomic phylogenetic and dating analyses. The estimated molecular phylogeny is fully consistent with previous studies based on morphology and molecular data, finding a sister relationship of Diochini with a clade formed by Xantholinini and Othiini (Maorothiini not sampled). Dating analyses inferred an early split of the tribe Diochini at 140-156 Mya. Morphology shows clear differences in the aedeagal and external morphology of D. occultus n. sp. and D. staudingeri, whereas a sister relationship of these taxa is found in the phylogenetic analyses, with the split dated at 48-61 Mya. Although the study of additional Palaearctic Diochus species will be required to conclusively establish that D. occultus n. sp. is a palaeoendemic taxon sister to D. staudingeri, associated to forests of Abies pinsapo in the south of the Iberian Peninsula, this conclusion is consistent with the ancient estimated age of speciation, endogean habitat specificity, low dispersal capacity (flightless species), and microendemicity of D. occultus. This is also consistent with the continued emersion of the Betic sub-plate along its tectonic evolution. The estimated ages of diversification of the Paederinae-Staphylininae lineage are also discussed.
Hernando, Carles; Andújar, Carmelo
Patrimonios y culturas del vino en riesgo de desaparición: el caso de As Adegas do Viño do País (Betanzos, Galicia)
Las Adegas do Viño do País son establecimientos propios de la comarca de Betanzos (noroeste de Galicia, España) en los que se permite vender el excedente de la producciónMvinícola anual por parte de sus productores. Estos locales, cuyos orígenes remontan al periodo medieval, forman parte de la tradición y la cultura del vino contemporánea de la zona, donde las personas acuden a degustar el vino del año y llevan comida para compartir. Pese a la relevancia histórica, cultural y patrimonial de estos espacios, actualmente corren el riesgo de desaparecer. El presente estudio analiza, con perspectiva etnográfica, mediante aproximación sociológica y en línea con los estudios críticos del patrimonio, los factores socioculturales que emplazan a esta tradición al borde de la desaparición. Los resultados muestran una cultura vitícola singular y, por tanto, una oportunidad de favorecer su continuidad mediante su diferenciación, es decir, la adaptación de esta tradición a la modernidad fundamentada en el estudio de las Adegas do Viño do País.
Togores Hernani, José Ramón; Parga-Dans, Eva; Diz, Carlos