TBS-pyrrole as an “universal” reference to quantify artemisinin and structurally-diverse natural products in plants extracts by NMR
The commercial production of artemisinin and other valuable bioactive natural products depends on their plant sources, which may provide variable amounts of the compound depending on plant variety, the period of the year, abiotic stress and other factors. Therefore, it requires a method for large-scale, low-cost natural product quantification. The standard HPLC and UHPLC methods are accurate but the analysis are costly and require different optimization for structurally-diverse products. An alternative method using NMR with TBS-pyrrole as a novel “universal” reference affords a simple, fast method to quantify many different products. The method is shown with antimalarial artemisinin, whose yield using conventional and novel extraction procedures was determined by standard UHPLC-MS procedures and by our NMR protocol, with similar quantification results. The novel reference compound does not interfere with artemisinin or extract signals, only needs a small amount of the extract, is accurate and operationally simple, and a large volume of samples can be processed in little time. Moreover, bioactive terpenes, steroids, alkaloids, aromatic compounds, and quinones, among others, were quantified in a model vegetal extract with this “universal” reference with excellent accuracy.
Biostimulant activity of Galaxaura rugosa seaweed extracts against water deficit stress in tomato seedlings involves activation of ABA signaling
Water scarcity is a serious constraint for agriculture, and global warming and climate change can exacerbate it in many areas. Therefore, sustainable approaches must be implemented to deal with current and future water scarcity scenarios. Genetic and chemical approaches are being applied to manage this limitation and maintain crop yields. In particular, biostimulants obtained from natural sources such as marine algae are promising aids for coping with water deficit stress in agriculture. Here we present a bioprospection study of extracts of the macroalgae Bonnemaisonia hamifera, Galaxaura rugosa, Dasycladus vermicularis, Ulva clathrata, Cystoseira foeniculacea, Cystoseira humilis, Lobophora dagamae, Colpomenia sinuosa and Halopteris scoparia from the north coast of Tenerife, in the Canary Islands. The aqueous extracts of Bonnemaisonia hamifera, Galaxaura rugosa, Dasycladus vermicularis and Cystoseira humilis show biostimulant activity against water deficit stress in tomato seedlings under controlled conditions, providing higher tolerance than the mock-treated control. The Galaxaura rugosa extract showed the highest biostimulant activity against water deficit stress. We demonstrate that this positive effect involves the activation of the abscisic acid (ABA) pathway in Arabidopsis thaliana (arabidopsis) and Solanum lycopersicum (tomato). Application of G. rugosa extract to the root system by drenching tomato seedlings subjected to water deficit leads to improved CO2 assimilation and water use efficiency (WUEp), compared to mock-treated plants. These results highlight a new potential seaweed source of substances with osmoprotectant properties, useful for biostimulant development. Future studies may provide further insight into which components of the seaweed extract induce activation of the ABA pathway.
Morales-Sierra, Sarai; Cristo Luis, Juan; Jiménez-Arias, David; Rancel-Rodríguez, Nereida M.; Coego, Alberto; Rodriguez, Pedro L.; Cueto, Mercedes; Borges, Andrés A.
Bubble-enhanced basanite–tephrite mixing in the early stages of the Cumbre Vieja 2021 eruption, La Palma, Canary Islands
Syneruptive magma mixing is widespread in volcanic eruptions, affecting explosivity and composition of products, but its evidence in basaltic systems is usually cryptic. Here we report direct evidence of mixing between basanitic and tephritic magmas in the first days of the 2021 Tajogaite eruption of Cumbre Vieja, La Palma. Groundmass glass in tephritic tephra from the fifth day of the eruption is locally inhomogeneous, showing micron-scale filamentary structures of Si-poor and Fe-, Mg-rich melt, forming complex filaments attached to bubbles. Their compositional distribution attests the presence of primitive basanitic magma, with compositions similar to late-erupted melts, interacting with an evolved tephritic melt during the first week of the event. From filament morphology, we suggest their generation by dragging and folding of basanitic melt during bubble migration through melt interfaces. Semi-quantitative diffusion modelling indicates that the filamentary structures are short-lived, dissipating in timescales of tens of seconds. In combination with thermobarometric constraints, we suggest a mixing onset by sub-Moho remobilization of a tephritic reservoir by basanite input, followed by turbulent ascent of a mingled magma. In the shallow conduit or lava fountain, bubble nucleation and migration triggered further mingling of the distinct melt-phases. This phenomenon might have enhanced the explosive behaviour of the eruption in such period, where violent strombolian explosions were common.